Antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of two Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. varieties from Sudan

Abdalbasit Adam MARIOD, Makarim Mutasim MUSTAFA, Abdelazim NOUR, Mahmood Ameen ABDALLA, Suzy Munir SALAMA, Nahla Saeed AL WAJEEH


The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and acute toxicity of the methanol extract of two Lagenaria siceraria (MolinaStandl. varieties of dried seeds, Sweet gourd Water Jug (WJ) and bitter gourd Basket Ball (BB). The seed extracts were tested for their total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and scavenging activity to the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Both dried seed extracts were then tested for acute toxicity at doses 2 and 5 g kg-1 each. Sixty female and male rats were assigned into five groups per sex. Four groups were given low and high doses of each dried  seed extract and the fifth group was given 10 % Tween 20 as a control. Kidneys and livers of all rats were assessed for biochemistry and histopathology. The seed extract of WJ revealed higher TPC, FRAP and DPPH activities compared to BB seeds, while TFC results were reversed. Toxicologically, no toxicity signs were recorded in animals. Biochemistry results were within the normal ranges with a slight increase in bilirubin and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and histology of kidneys and livers showed normal architecture. In conclusion, WJ and BB dried seed extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity suggesting promising therapeutic regimen against oxidative stress.


Lagenaria siceraria; antioxidant; acute toxicity

Full Text:



Achigan-Dako, E. G., Fagbemissi, R., Avohou, H. T., Vodouhe, R. S., Coulibaly, O., Ahanchede, A. (2008). Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. ‘Aklamkpa’) in sociolinguistic areas in Benin. Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement, 12(4), 393-403.

Al Batran, R., Al-Bayaty, F., Al-Obaidi, M. M. J., Abdulla, M. A. (2013). Acute toxicity and the effect of andrographolide on porphyromonas gingivalis-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. BioMed research international, Volume 2013, Article ID 594012, 7 pages

Antia, B. S., Essien, E. E., Udoh, B. I. (2015). Antioxidant capacity of phenolic from seed extracts of Lagenaria siceraria (short-hybrid bottle gourd). European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 9(1), 1-9.

Antia, B. S., Essien, E. E., Peter N. S. (2016). Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolics from seed oils of various cultivars of Lagenaria siceraria. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceitic Science, 3(5).

Aras, A., Silinsin, M., Bingol, M. N., Bursal, E. (2017). Identification of Bioactive Polyphenolic Compounds and Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Origanum acutidens. International Letters of Natural Sciences, 66, 1-8.

Benzie, I. F. and Strain, J. J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical biochemistry, 239(1), 70-76.

CDER, and FDA. (1996). Guidance for industry: single dose acute toxicity testing for pharmaceuticals (Final).

Chang, C.-C., Yang, M.-H., Wen, H.-M., Chern, J.-C. (2002). Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of food and drug analysis, 10(3), 178-182.

Co-operation, O. f. E., & Development. (2002). Test No. 423: Acute Oral Toxicity-Acute Toxic Class Method: OECD Publishing.

Deshpande, J., Choudhari, A., Mishra, M., Meghre, V., Wadodkar, S., Dorle, A. (2008). Beneficial effects of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley fruit epicarp in animal models. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 46, 234-242.

Dolatabadi, J. E. N., & Kashanian, S. (2010). A review on DNA interaction with synthetic phenolic food additives. Food Research International, 43(5), 1223-1230.

Elhadi, I. M., Koko, W. S., Dahab, M. M., El Imam, Y. M., & El Mageed, M. A. E. A. (2013). Antigiardial activity of some Cucurbita species and Lagenaria siceraria. Journal of Forest Products and Industries, 2(4), 43-47.

Erickson, D. L., Smith, B. D., Clarke, A. C., Sandweiss, D. H., & Tuross, N. (2005). An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(51), 18315-18320.

Fader, M., Gerten, D., Krause, M., Lucht, W., Cramer, W. (2013). Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints. Environmental Research Letters, 8(1),

Firestone, D. (2009). Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS: AOCS.

Fujii, T. (1997). Toxicological correlation between changes in blood biochemical parameters and liver histopathological findings. Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 22, 161–83.

Ghule, B., Ghante, M., Upaganlawar, A., Yeole, P. (2006). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Lagenaria siceraria Stand. fruit juice extract in rats and mice. Pharmacognosy magazine, 2(8), 232-238.

Gill, N., Singh, S., Arora, R., & Bali, M. (2012). Evaluation of ethanolic seed extract of Lagenaria siceraria for their therapeutic potential. Journal of Medical Sciences, 12(3), 78-84.

Gorinstein, S., Drzewiecki, J., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Najman, K., Jastrzebski, Z., Katrich, E. (2005). Comparison of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentials of fresh and cooked Polish, Ukrainian, and Israeli garlic. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 53(7), 2726-2732.

Kadhim, N. J., Al-Rekaby, L. S., Abdul Redha, A., Chappell, J. (2019). Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of eggplant parts during vegetative and flowering stage. To cite: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1294 (2019) 092013 IOP Publishing,

Kumar, D., Sharma, C., Singh, B., Singh, D. (2015). Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of natural remedy Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standly: A Review. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 7(5), 340-352.

Mayakrishnan, V., Veluswamy, S., Sundaram, K. S., Kannappan, P., & Abdullah, N. (2013). Free radical scavenging potential of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl fruits extract. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, 6(1), 20-26.

Mirza, S. K., Asema, U., Kasim, S. S. (2017). To study the harmful effects of food preservatives on human health. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, 2(2), 610-616.

Moayedi, A., Mora, L., Aristoy, M.-C., Hashemi, M., Safari, M., Toldrá, F. (2017). ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fragments obtained from tomato processing by-products fermented using Bacillus subtilis: Effect of amino acid composition and peptides molecular mass distribution. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology, 181(1), 48-64.

Olszowy, M. (2019). What is responsible for antioxidant properties of polyphenolic compounds from plants?. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 144, 135-143.

Rahman, H., Manjula, K., Anoosha, T., Nagaveni, K., Eswaraiah, C., Bardalai, D. (2013). In-vitro antioxidant activity of Citrullus lanatus seed extracts. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 6(3), 152-157.

Saha, P., Mazumder, U., Haldar, P., Islam, A., & Kumar, R. S. (2011). Evaluation of acute and subchronic toxicity of Lagenaria siceraria aerial parts. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2(6), 1507-1512.

Salama, S. M., AlRashdi, A. S., Abdulla, M. A., Hassandarvish, P., & Bilgen, M. (2013). Protective activity of Panduratin A against thioacetamide-induced oxidative damage: demonstration with in vitro experiments using WRL-68 liver cell line. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 13(1), 1-9.

Sangeetha, M. and Venkatalakshmi, P. (2017). In Vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata and Carica papaya leaves. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(5), 1631-1643.

Satvir, S., Gill, N., Arora, R. (2012). Study the antioxidant activity of Lagenaria siceraria seeds. International Journal of Natural Product Sciences, 1, 224.

Shah, B., Seth, A., & Desai, R. (2010). Phytopharmacological profile of Lagenaria siceraria: a review. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 9(3), 152-157.

Shaker, E. and Mnaa, S. (2017). Protective effect of some local plants against oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Environmental and Toxicological Studies, 1(1),

Singh, M., Mohd, F., Ayaz, A., Ankur, S., & Jyoti, Y. (2012). Protective effect of Lagenaria siceraria against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in wistar rats. International Journal of Drug Development and Research, 4(2), 298-295.

Singleton, V. L. and Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158.

Sivannarayana, T., Hussain, S. S., & Jithendra, K. P. (2013). Pharmacological and pharmaceutical applications of Lagenaria siceraria. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1(4), 288-292.

Sood, A., Kaur, P., & Gupta, R. (2012). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assay of various seeds extract of cucurbitaceae family. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 3(3), 401-409.

Srivastava, V., Rao, C., & Panday, A. (2011). ntiulcer activity of methanolic fruit extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standly. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 3(7), 187-192.

Thakkar, J. H. (2013). Evaluation of invitro antimutagenic potential of Lagenaria siceraria using Ame’s test. American Journal of Cancer Biology, 1(2), 57-61.

Umeno, A., Biju, V., Yoshida, Y. (2017). In vivo ROS production and use of oxidative stress-derived biomarkers to detect the onset of diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and diabetes. Free Radical Research, 51(4), 413-427.

Upaganlawar, A. and Balaraman, R. (2011). Cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in wistar rats: a biochemical and histoarchitecture study. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 3(4), 297-303.

Young, T. H ., Tang, H. S., Chao, Y. C., Lee, H. S., Hsiong, C. H., Pao, L. H., Hu, O. Y. P. (2008). Quantitative rat liver function test by galactose single point method. Laboratory Animals, 42(4), 495-504.

Zeb, A., & Mehmood, S. (2004). Carotenoids contents from various sources and their potential health applications. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3(3), 199-204.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Makarim Mutasim Makarim Mutasim M. Mustafa, Abdelazim Nour, Mahmood Ameen Abdallah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License.


eISSN 1854-1941