Unravelling efficient applications of agriculturally important microorganisms for alleviation of induced inter-cellular oxidative stress in crops



Abiotic stresses like high temperature, cold, freezing, drought, salinity, flooding or oxidizing agents cause significant loss in the crop yield and quality. Abiotic stresses cause reactive oxygen species (ROS) production such as singlet oxygen (1O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radical (O2•−), hydroxyl radical (OH-), etc., that leads to a significant reduction of crop yield. A major source of ROS production in plants through aerobic metabolism is chloroplast, mitochondria, and peroxisome. The tripartite interactions involving Trichoderma- Phytopathogen-Host have received less attention in contrast to the plant–antagonist, plant–pathogen or pathogen–antagonist interactions. This article explores the possibilities of employing thermotolerant strains of agriculturally important microorganisms (AIMs) for alleviating the oxidative stress induced due heat stress in crops by modulating oxidative and defense network of the host.


heat stress; ROS; AIMs;abiotic stress;crop protection

Full Text:



Acquaah, G. (2007). Principles of plant breeding and genetics. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing.

Apel, K., & Hirt, H. (2004). Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 55, 373-399.

Arora, A., Sairam, R., & Srivastava, G. (2002). Oxidative stress and antioxidative system in plants. Current science, 1227-1238.

Asada, K. (2006). Production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts and their functions. Plant physiology, 141(2), 391-396.

Baker, A., & Graham, I. A. (2013). Plant peroxisomes: biochemistry, cell biology and biotechnological applications: Springer Science & Business Media.

Bhatnagar-Mathur, P., Vadez, V., & Sharma, K. K. (2008). Transgenic approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in plants: retrospect and prospects. Plant cell reports, 27(3), 411-424.

Bienert, G. P., Schjoerring, J. K., & Jahn, T. P. (2006). Membrane transport of hydrogen peroxide. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 1758(8), 994-1003.

Bisen, K., Keswani, C., Patel, J.S., Sarma, B.K. and Singh, H.B. (2016) Trichoderma spp.: Efficient Inducers of Systemic Resistance in Plants. In: Microbial-mediated Induced Systemic Resistance in Plants. Eds. Choudhary, D.K. and Verma, A. Springer Singapore, pp. 185-195.

Boyer, J. S. (1982). Plant productivity and environment. Science, 218(4571), 443-448.

Broecker, W. S. (1975). Climatic change: are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming? Science, 189(4201), 460-463.

Camejo, D., Rodríguez, P., Morales, M. A., Dell’Amico, J. M., Torrecillas, A., & Alarcón, J. J. (2005). High temperature effects on photosynthetic activity of two tomato cultivars with different heat susceptibility. Journal of plant physiology, 162(3), 281-289.

Canovas, F. M., Dumas‐Gaudot, E., Recorbet, G., Jorrin, J., Mock, H. P., & Rossignol, M. (2004). Plant proteome analysis. Proteomics, 4(2), 285-298.

Chawla, S., Jain, S., & Jain, V. (2013). Salinity induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of plant biochemistry and biotechnology, 22(1), 27-34.

Chitara, M. K., Keswani, C., Bisen, K., Singh, V., Singh, S. P., Sarma, B. K., Singh H. B. (2017) Improving Crop Performance under Heat Stress using Thermo tolerant Agriculturally Important Microorganisms. In: Advances in PGPR Research. Eds. H. B. Singh, B. K. Sarma, C. Keswani. CABI, UK pp. 296-305.

Choudhury, S., Panda, P., Sahoo, L., & Panda, S. K. (2013). Reactive oxygen species signaling in plants under abiotic stress. Plant signaling & behavior, 8(4), e23681.

Elad, Y. (2000). Biological control of foliar pathogens by means of Trichoderma harzianum and potential modes of action. Crop protection, 19(8-10), 709-714.

Elstner, E. F. (1991). Metabolisms of oxygen activation in different compartments of plant cells. Active Oxygen/Oxidative Stress and Plant Metabolism., 13-25.

Field, C. B., Barros, V. R., Dokken, D., Mach, K., Mastrandrea, M., Bilir, T., Genova, R. (2014). IPCC, 2014: Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Foyer, C. H., & Noctor, G. (2000). Tansley Review No. 112 Oxygen processing in photosynthesis: regulation and signalling. The New Phytologist, 146(3), 359-388.

Gill, S. S., & Tuteja, N. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant physiology and biochemistry, 48(12), 909-930.

Guilioni, L., Wery, J., & Tardieu, F. (1997). Heat stress-induced abortion of buds and flowers in pea: is sensitivity linked to organ age or to relations between reproductive organs? Annals of Botany, 80(2), 159-168.

Halliwell, B. (2006). Reactive species and antioxidants. Redox biology is a fundamental theme of aerobic life. Plant physiology, 141(2), 312-322.

Hammond-Kosack, K. E., & Parker, J. E. (2003). Deciphering plant–pathogen communication: fresh perspectives for molecular resistance breeding. Current opinion in biotechnology, 14(2), 177-193.

Harman, G. E., Howell, C. R., Viterbo, A., Chet, I., & Lorito, M. (2004). Trichoderma species—opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nature reviews microbiology, 2(1), 43.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Hossain, M. A., da Silva, J. A. T., & Fujita, M. (2012). Plant response and tolerance to abiotic oxidative stress: antioxidant defense is a key factor Crop stress and its management: Perspectives and strategies (pp. 261-315): Springer.

Hermosa, R., Viterbo, A., Chet, I., & Monte, E. (2012). Plant-beneficial effects of Trichoderma and of its genes. Microbiology, 158(1), 17-25.

Hintze, K., & Theil, E. (2006). Cellular regulation and molecular interactions of the ferritins. Cellular and molecular life sciences, 63(5), 591.

Howarth, C. (2005). Genetic improvements of tolerance to high temperature. In ‘Abiotic stresses–plant resistance through breeding and molecular approaches’.(Eds M Ashraf, PJC Harris) pp. 277–300: The Haworth Press: New York.

Jones, J. D., & Dangl, J. L. (2006). The plant immune system. Nature, 444(7117), 323.

Karl, T. R., Melillo, J. M., Peterson, T. C., & Hassol, S. J. (2009). Global climate change impacts in the United States: Cambridge University Press.

Kazemi‐Pour, N., Condemine, G., & Hugouvieux‐Cotte‐Pattat, N. (2004). The secretome of the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi. Proteomics, 4(10), 3177-3186.

Kehrer, J. P. (2000). The Haber–Weiss reaction and mechanisms of toxicity. Toxicology, 149(1), 43-50.

Keswani, C., Surya P. Singh, and H.B. Singh. (2013) A Superstar in Biocontrol Enterprise: Trichoderma spp. Biotech Today 3 (2): 27-30.

Keswani, C., Mishra, S., Sarma, B. K., Singh, S. P., & Singh, H. B. (2014). Unraveling the efficient applications of secondary metabolites of various Trichoderma spp. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 98(2), 533-544.

Keswani, C. (2015). Proteomics studies of thermotolerant strain of Trichoderma spp. Ph.D. Thesis, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, p. 126.

Keswani, C., Bisen, K., Singh, S.P., Sarma, B.K., and Singh H.B. (2016) A proteomic approach to understand the tripartite interactions between plant-Trichoderma-pathogen: investigating the potential for efficient biological control. In: Plant, Soil and Microbes Vol. 2.Mechanisms and Molecular Interactions. Eds. K. R. Hakeem and Mohd. Sayeed Akhtar. Springer USA, pp. 79-93.

Kim, S. T., Kim, S. G., Hwang, D. H., Kang, S. Y., Kim, H. J., Lee, B. H., Kang, K. Y. (2004). Proteomic analysis of pathogen‐responsive proteins from rice leaves induced by rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Proteomics, 4(11), 3569-3578.

Kishor, P. K., Sangam, S., Amrutha, R., Laxmi, P. S., Naidu, K., Rao, K., Sreenivasulu, N. (2005). Regulation of proline biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants: its implications in plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Current science, 424-438.

Kovacic, P. (2003). Mechanism of drug and toxic actions of gossypol: focus on reactive oxygen species and electron transfer. Current medicinal chemistry, 10(24), 2711-2718.

Kuo, C., Chen, H., & Ma, L. (1986). Effect of high temperature on proline content in tomato floral buds and leaves. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

Lobell, D. B., & Burke, M. B. (2010). On the use of statistical models to predict crop yield responses to climate change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150(11), 1443-1452.

Logan, B. A. (2008). 10 Reactive oxygen species and photosynthesis. Antioxidants and Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants, 250.

Lorenzoni, I., Jordan, A., Favis-Mortlock, D., Viner, D., & Hall, J. (2001). Developing sustainable practices to adapt to the impacts of climate change: a case study of agricultural systems in eastern England (UK). Regional Environmental Change, 2(3), 106-117.

Lu, Z., Tombolini, R., Woo, S., Zeilinger, S., Lorito, M., & Jansson, J. K. (2004). In vivo study of Trichoderma-pathogen-plant interactions, using constitutive and inducible green fluorescent protein reporter systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70(5), 3073-3081.

Luis, A., Sandalio, L. M., Corpas, F. J., Palma, J. M., & Barroso, J. B. (2006). Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in peroxisomes. Production, scavenging, and role in cell signaling. Plant physiology, 141(2), 330-335.

Marra, R., Ambrosino, P., Carbone, V., Vinale, F., Woo, S. L., Ruocco, M., Soriente, I. (2006). Study of the three-way interaction between Trichoderma atroviride, plant and fungal pathogens by using a proteomic approach. Current genetics, 50(5), 307-321.

Mastouri, F., Björkman, T., & Harman, G. E. (2012). Trichoderma harzianum enhances antioxidant defense of tomato seedlings and resistance to water deficit. Molecular plant-microbe interactions, 25(9), 1264-1271.

Mertz, O., Mbow, C., Reenberg, A., & Diouf, A. (2009). Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. Environmental management, 43(5), 804-816.

Miller, G., Suzuki, N., Ciftci‐Yilmaz, S., & Mittler, R. (2010). Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signalling during drought and salinity stresses. Plant, cell & environment, 33(4), 453-467.

Mittler, R. (2002). Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in plant science, 7(9), 405-410.

Noctor, G., Veljovic‐Jovanovic, S., Driscoll, S., Novitskaya, L., & Foyer, C. H. (2002). Drought and oxidative load in the leaves of C3 plants: a predominant role for photorespiration? Annals of Botany, 89(7), 841-850.

Ram, R.M., Keswani, C., Bisen, K., Tripathi, R., Singh, S.P., Singh, H.B. (2018). Biocontrol Technology: Eco-Friendly Approaches for Sustainable Agriculture. In: Brah, D., Azevedo, V. (eds) Omics Technologies and Bio-Engineering: Towards Improving Quality of Life Volume II Microbial, Plant, Environmental and Industrial Technologies. Academic Press, London, U.K. pp. 177-190.

Ramonell, K. M., & Somerville, S. (2002). The genomics parade of defense responses: to infinity and beyond. Current opinion in plant biology, 5(4), 291-294.

Rasheed, R., Wahid, A., Farooq, M., Hussain, I., & Basra, S. M. (2011). Role of proline and glycinebetaine pretreatments in improving heat tolerance of sprouting sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) buds. Plant growth regulation, 65(1), 35-45.

Sasaki, T. (1997). Science of the rice plant (Genetics): Nobunkyo.

Saseendran, S., Singh, K., Rathore, L., Singh, S., & Sinha, S. (2000). Effects of climate change on rice production in the tropical humid climate of Kerala, India. Climatic Change, 44(4), 495-514.

Schoffl, F., Prandl, R., Hinderhofer, K., & Reindl, A. (1997). Molecular and applied aspects of the heat stress response and of common stress tolerance in plants. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 19(4).

Sharma, P., & Dubey, R. S. (2005). Drought induces oxidative stress and enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice seedlings. Plant growth regulation, 46(3), 209-221.

Sharma, P., Jha, A. B., Dubey, R. S., & Pessarakli, M. (2012). Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. Journal of botany, 2012.

Singh, H.B, Sarma, B.K., Keswani, C. (2017) Advances in PGPR Research CABI- UK. 408 pages, ISBN-9781786390325.

Singh, H.B, Sarma, B.K., Keswani, C. (2016). Agriculturally Important Microorganisms: Commercialization and Regulatory Requirements in Asia. Springer, Singapore. 336 pages, ISBN-13: 978-9811025754

Shoeb, M., Singh, B. R., Khan, J. A., Khan, W., Singh, B. N., Singh, H. B., & Naqvi, A. H. (2013). ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 4(3), 035015.

Smolka, B., Lukac, R., Chydzinski, A., Plataniotis, K. N., & Wojciechowski, W. (2003). Fast adaptive similarity based impulsive noise reduction filter. Real-Time Imaging, 9(4), 261-276.

Suárez, M. B., Sanz, L., Chamorro, M. I., Rey, M., González, F. J., Llobell, A., & Monte, E. (2005). Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from Trichoderma harzianum: identification of a fungal cell wall-induced aspartic protease. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 42(11), 924-934.

Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2006). Plant physiology. 4th. Sinauer Associate, Sunderland, Mass., EUA.

Tripathy, B. C., & Oelmüller, R. (2012). Reactive oxygen species generation and signaling in plants. Plant signaling & behavior, 7(12), 1621-1633.

Trovato, M., Mattioli, R., & Costantino, P. (2008). Multiple roles of proline in plant stress tolerance and development. Rendiconti Lincei, 19(4), 325-346.

Tucci, M., Ruocco, M., De Masi, L., De Palma, M., & Lorito, M. (2011). The beneficial effect of Trichoderma spp. on tomato is modulated by the plant genotype. Molecular Plant Pathology, 12(4), 341-354.

Van Breusegem, F., Vranová, E., Dat, J. F., & Inzé, D. (2001). The role of active oxygen species in plant signal transduction. Plant Science, 161(3), 405-414.

Vinale, F., Sivasithamparam, K., Ghisalberti, E. L., Marra, R., Woo, S. L., & Lorito, M. (2008). Trichoderma–plant–pathogen interactions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40(1), 1-10.

Vollenweider, P., & Günthardt-Goerg, M. S. (2005). Diagnosis of abiotic and biotic stress factors using the visible symptoms in foliage. Environmental Pollution, 137(3), 455-465.

Wahid, A., Gelani, S., Ashraf, M., & Foolad, M. R. (2007). Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environmental and experimental botany, 61(3), 199-223.

Wang, W., Vinocur, B., Shoseyov, O., & Altman, A. (2004). Role of plant heat-shock proteins and molecular chaperones in the abiotic stress response. Trends in plant science, 9(5), 244-252.

Wang, Y., Mopper, S., & Hasenstein, K. H. (2001). Effects of salinity on endogenous ABA, IAA, JA, and SA in Iris hexagona. Journal of chemical ecology, 27(2), 327-342.

Willits, D., & Peet, M. (1998). The effect of night temperature on greenhouse grown tomato yields in warm climates. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 92(3), 191-202.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2019.114.1.14


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Chetan Keswani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941