Accumulation and dynamics of manganese in raspberry



The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of Mn in ‘soil - raspberry’ system on the area around the manganese ore deposits Radostovo in Bužim municipality. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of Mn in soil and plant samples. Fe, Zn and Cu concentration in soil and raspberry plants was also subject of analysis, since these elements have antagonistic relationship with Mn in soils. The concentration of available Mn in soils was low, although the total Mn in the same soils exceeded the Mn toxic values noted in the scientific literature. The chemical and physical properties of the examined soils characterized by a relatively high pH value and good ability to store root-zone air certainly contributed to the decreasing release of available Mn2+ from manganese oxides in soils as well as Mn2+ oxidation to insoluble Mn3+ or Mn4+ ions, resulting in low uptake of Mn by plant roots. The results of study also showed that the absorbed Mn mostly accumulates in leaves and roots of raspberry, and much less in the stem and fruits. That rule in Mn distribution within raspberry plant is in fact identical to all food crops.


availability; nutrients; Mn; plant; soil; uptake

Full Text:



Blamey, F. P. C., Hernandez‐Soriano, M. C., Cheng, M., Tang, C., Paterson, D. J., Lombi, E., Wang, W. H., Scheckel, K. G., Kopittke, P. M. (2015). Synchrotron‐based techniques shed light on mechanisms of plant sensitivity and tolerance to high manganese in the root environment. Plant Physiology, 169, 2006-2020.

Bradl, H. (2004). Adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soils constituents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 277(1), 1-18.

Cailliatte, R., Schikora, A., Briat, J. F., Mari, S., Curie, C. (2010). High-affinity manganese uptake by the metal transporter NRAMP1 is essential for Arabidopsis growth in low manganese conditions. The Plant Cell, 22(3), 904-917.

Dou, C. M., Fu, X. P., Chen, X. C., Shi, J. Y., Chen, Y. X. (2009). Accumulation and detoxification of manganese in hyperaccumulator Phytolacca Americana. Plant Biology (Stuttgart), 11(5), 664-670.

Dučić, T., Polle, A. (2005). Transport and detoxification of manganese and copper in plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17(1), 103-112.

Dufey, I., Hakizimana, P., Draye, X., Lutts, S., Bertin, P. (2009). QTL mapping for biomass and physiological parameters linked to resistance mechanisms to ferrous iron toxicity in rice. Euphytica, 167, 143-160.

Egnér, H., Riehm, H., Domingo, W. R. (1960). Investigations on the chemical soil analysis as a basis for assessing the soil nutrient status II. Chemical extraction methods for phosphorus and potassium determination. Kungliga Lantbrukshügskolans Annaler, 26, 199-215.

Ekholm, P., Reinivuo, H., Mattila, P., Pakkala, H., Koponen, J., Happonen, A., Hellström, J., Ovaskainen, M. L. (2007). Changes in the mineral and trace element contents of cereals, fruits and vegetables in Finland. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(6), 487 - 495.

Emamverdian, A., Ding, Y., Mokhberdoran, F., Xie, Y. (2015). Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response. The Scientific World Journal, ID 756120, 18.

Emsley, J. (2001). Nature’s building blocks: An a-z guide to the elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Esu, I. E. (1991). Detailed soil survey of National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) Farm at Bunkure, Kano State, Nigeria. Zaria: Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmad Bello University.

FAO. (2014). World reference base for soil resources. Retrieved from

FAO/WHO. (2001). Food Additives and Contaminants (ALINORM No. 01/12A: 1-289). Retrieved from

Ghasemi-Fasaei, R., Ronaghi, A. (2008). Interaction of Iron with Copper, Zinc, and Manganese in Wheat as Affected by Iron and Manganese in a Calcareous Soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31(5), 839-848.

Grigorova, I. (2011). Studies and possibilities of low grade manganese ore beneficiation. 22nd World Mining Congress (pp. 593-598). Ankara: Aydoğdu Ofset.

Guest, C. A., Schulze, D. G., Thompson, I. A., Huber, D. M. (2002). Correlating manganese X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra with extractable soil manganese. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 1172-1181.

Horst, W. J. (1988). The Physiology of Manganese Toxicity. In R. D. Graham, R. J. Hannam & N. C. Uren, (Eds.), Manganese in Soils and Plants’ (pp. 175-188) Adelaide: Proceedings of the International Symposium on ‘Manganese in Soils and Plants, University of Adelaide, Waite Agricultural Research Institute.

Husson, O. (2013). Redox potential (Eh) and pH as drivers of soil/plant/microorganism systems: a transdisciplinary overview pointing to integrative opportunities for agronomy. Plant and Soil, 362(1-2), 389-417.

International Organization for Standardization. (1995). Soil quality - Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia (ISO Standard No. 11466). Retrieved from

International Organization for Standardization. (1998). Soil quality - Determination of organic carbon in soil by sulfochromic oxidation (ISO Standard No. 14235). Retrieved from

International Organization for Standardization. (1998). Soil quality - Determination of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc - Flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric methods (ISO Standard No. 11047). Retrieved from

International Organization for Standardization. (2005). Soil quality - Determination of pH (ISO Standard No. 10390). Retrieved from

Iratkar, A. G., Giri, J. D., Kadam, M. M., Giri, J. N., Dabhade, M. B. (2014). Distribution of DTPA extractable micronutrients and their relationship with soil properties in soil of Parsori watershed of Nagpur district of Maharashtra. Asian Journal of Soil Science, 9, 297-299.

Kabata-Pendias, A., Pendias, H. (1999). Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements. Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publishing Company.

Kabata-Pendias, A., Pendias, H. (2001). Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. Boca Raton, Fla., London: CRC Press.

Kastori, R., Petrović N., Arsenijević-Maksimović, I. (1997). Heavy metals in the environment. Novi Sad: University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture.

Khabaz-Saberi, H., Rengel, Z. (2010). Aluminum, manganese, and iron tolerance improves performance of wheat genotypes in waterlogged acidic soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 173, 461-468.

Lambers, H., Hayes, P. E., Laliberte, E., Oliveira, R. S., Turner, B. L. (2015). Leaf manganese accumulation and phosphorus-acquisition efficiency. Trends in Plant Science 20(2), 83-90.

Lei, Y., Korpelainen, H., Li, C. (2007). Physiological and biochemical responses to high Mn concentrations in two contrasting Populus cathayana populations. Chemosphere, 68(4), 686-694.

Leitenmaier, B., Küpper, H. (2013). Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4, 374.

Li, Z., McLaren, R. G., Metherell A. K. (1999). The effects of soil manganese status on the bioavailability of soil cobalt for pasture uptake in New Zealand Soils. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, 61, 133-137.

Lindsay, W. L., Cox, F. R. (1985). Micronutrient soil testing for the tropics. Fertilizer Research, 7(1-3), 169-200.

Lindsay, W. L., Norvell, W. A. (1978). Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron, Manganese, and Copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42(3), 421-428.

Lisjak, M., Špoljarević, M., Agić, D., Andrić, L. (2009). Laboratory Exercises in Plant Physiology. Osijek: Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Agriculture.

Marschner, P., Crowley, D., Rengel, Z. (2011). Rhizosphere interactions between microorganisms and plants govern iron and phosphorus acquisition along the root axis - model and research methods. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 883-894.

Millaleo, R., Reyes-Diaz, M., Ivanov, A. G., Mora, M. L., Alberdi, M. (2010). Manganese as essential and toxic element for plants: transport, accumulation and resistance mechanisms. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 10(4), 470-481.

Mousavi, S. R., Shahsavari, M., Rezaei, M. (2011). A General Overview on Manganese (Mn) Importance for Crops Production. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(9), 1799-1803.

Nunes, J. R., Ramos-Miras, J., Lopez-Piñeiro, A., Loures, L., Gil, C., Coelho, J., Loures, A. (2014). Concentrations of available heavy metals in Mediterranean agricultural soils and the relation with some soil selected properties: A case study in typical Mediterranean soils. Sustainability, 6, 9124-9138.

Official Gazette of FBiH. (2009). Rulebook on determination of allowable quantities of harmful and hazardous substances in soils of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and methods for their testing (No 72/09). Retrieved from

Pais, I., Jones J. B. (1997). The Handbook of Trace Elements. Boca Raton, Fla., London: CRC Press.

Pinto, E., Aguiar, A., A., R., M., Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V. O. (2014). Influence of Soil Chemistry and Plant Physiology in the Phytoremediation of Cu, Mn, and Zn. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 33(5), 351-373.

Podlešáková E., Němeček, J., Vácha R. (2002). Critical values of trace elements in soils from the viewpoint of the transfer pathway soil - Plant. Rostlinna Vyroba 48(5), 193-202.

Porter, G. S., Bajita-Locke, J. B., Hue, N. V., Strand, D. (2004). Manganese solubility and phytotoxicity affected by soil moisture, oxygen levels, and green manure additions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 35, 99-116.

Redžić, S., Sijarić, G., Muhić-Šarac, T., Pehić, E., Hrnjica, D. (2014). Distribution and bioavailability of manganese in soil in the vicinity of the ‘Bužim’ abandoned mine. Geologia Croatica, 67(1), 45-58.

Rengel, Z. (2000). Uptake and transport of manganese in plants. In: A. Sigel & H. Sigel (Eds.), Metal Ions in Biological Systems (pp. 57-87). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker

Rengel, Z. (2015). Availability of Mn, Zn and Fe in the rhizosphere. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 15(2), 397-409.

Scăeţeanu, G. V., Ilie, l., Călin, C. (2013). An Overview on Manganese in Nature. American Chemical Science Journal, 3(3), 247-263.

Sharma, B. D., Mukhopadhyay, S. S., Sidhu, P. S., Katyal, J. C. (2000). Pedospheric attributes in distribution of total and DTPA-extractable Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in Indo-Gangetic plains. Geoderma, 96, 131-151.

Sillanpää, M. (1982). Micronutrients and the nutrient status of soils: a global study. FAO, Rome: FAO Soils Bulletin.

Soltangheisi, A., Rahman, Z. A., Ishak, C. F., Musa H. M., Zakikhani, H. (2014). Interaction Effects of Zinc and Manganese on Growth, Uptake Response and Chlorophyll Content of Sweet Corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 13, 26-33.

Sonneveld, C., Voogt, S. J. (1975). Studies on the manganese uptake of lettuce on steam sterilized glasshouse soils. Plant Soil, 42, 49-64.

Sparrow, L. A., Uren, N. C. (2014). Manganese oxidation and reduction in soils: effects of temperature, water potential, pH and their interactions. Soil Research, 52, 483-494.

Tešović, Z., Dulić, I. (1989). Microelement levels in the fruits of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars and selections. Acta Horticulturae. 262, 327-332.

Trierweiler, J. E., Lindsay, W. L. (1969). EDTA-ammonium carbonate soil test for zinc. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 39, 49-54.

Violante, A., Cozzolino, A., Perelomov, V., Caporale, A.G., Pigna, M. (2010). Mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and metalloids in soil environments. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 10(3), 268-292.

Vukadinović, V., Vukadinović, V. (2011). Plant nutrition. Osijek: Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Agriculture.

Wang, Y., Jin, S., Lv, Y., Zhang Y., Su H. (2017). Hydrometallurgical Process and Kinetics of Leaching Manganese from Semi-Oxidized Manganese Ores with Sucrose. Minerals, 7, 27.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Senad Murtic, Emir Šahinović, Hamdija Čivić, Emina Sijahović

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941