Sugars, acids and polyphenols profile of commercial and traditional apple cultivars for processing



Three commercial apple cultivars ('Jonagold', 'Granny Smith' and 'Idared') and the local apple cultivar ('Prijedorska Zelenika') from Bosnia and Herzegovina were analysed by HPLC-MS for the content of phenolic compounds in peel and pulp as well content of individual sugars and organic acids. Catechin, (-)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin 3-O-xyloside, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were identified in apple peel and (-)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in apple pulp at all observed cultivars. The total sugars content of analysed apple cultivars ranged between 91.61 and 105.45 g kg-1 FM, while the total organic acids content was from 5.70 to 15.05 g kg-1 FM. The levels of total organic acids and sugars, glucoce/fructose ratio and sugar/acid ratio were affected by cultivars. The mean content of total phenolic compounds was between 427.92 and 1457.95 mg kg-1 FM in peel and from 113.58 to 439.83 mg kg-1 FM in pulp and depending upon the cultivars. The presented data clearly demonstrated that traditional apple cultivar ('Prijedorska Zelenika') had significantly higher individual phenolic compounds in pulp in comparison to the commercial cultivars, i.e., 'Idared', 'Jonagold' and 'Granny Smith' and with respect of that 'Prijedorska Zelenika' is recommended as raw material for cloudy juice processing.


local apple cultivars; commercial apple cultivars; primary metabolites; phenolics; HPLC-MS

Full Text:



Alberto, M.R., Canavosio, M.A.R., Nadra, M.C.M. (2006). Antimicrobial effect of polyphenols from apple skins on human bacterial pathogens. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 9(3), 205-209.

Alonso-Salces, R.M., Barranco, A., Abad, B., Berruetta, L.A., Gallo, B., Vicente, F. (2004). Polifenolic profiles of Basque Cider Apple Cultivars and Their Technological Properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(10), 2938-52.

Amiot, M.J., Tacchini, M., Aubert, S., Nicolas, J. (1992). Phenolic composition and browning susceptibility of Various Apple Cultivars at Maturity. Journal of Food Science, 57(4), 958-962.

Awad, M.A., Wagenmakers, P.S., Jager, A. (2001). Effect of light environment on flavonoid and chlorogenic acid levels in the skin of ‘Jonagold’ apples. Scientia Horticulturae, 88, 289-298.

Bakhshi, D., Arakawa, O. (2006). Induction of phenolic compounds biosynthesis with light irradiation in the flesh of red and yellow apples. Journal of Applied Horticulturae, 8, 101−104.

Begić-Akagić, A., Hadžić, S., Gaši, F., Kurtović, M. (2006). Evaluation of technological characteristics of the autochthonous apple genotypes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Work of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sarajevo, 57(3), 117-125.

Begić-Akagić, A., Spaho, N., Gaši, F., Drkenda, P., Vranac, A., Meland, M., Salkić, B. (2014). Sugar and organic acid profiles of the traditional and international apple cultivars for processing. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design, 190-196.

Begić-Akagić, A., Spaho, N., Oručević, S., Drkenda, P., Kurtović, M., Gaši, F., Kopjar, M., Piližota, V. (2011). Influence of cultivar, storage time, and processing on the phenol content of cloudy apple juice. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3, 1-8.

Bhuyan, D.J., Basu, A. (2017). Phenolic compounds: Potential Health Benefits and Toxicity. In: Utilisation of Bioactive Compounds from Agricultural and Food Production Waste. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 27-59.

Boudabous, M., Marzouk, I.B., Lechiheb, B., Yahia, I.B., Ferchichi, A. (2015). Journal of New Sciences, 24(2), 1091-97.

Boyer, J., Liu, R.H. (2004). Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutrition Journal, 3(5), 1-15.

Carbone, K., Giannini, B., Picchi, V., Scalzo, R.L., Cecchini, F. (2011). Phenolic composition and free radical scavenging activity of different apple varieties in relation to the cultivar, tissue type and storage. Food Chemistry, 127, 493-500.

Chan, W.W., Chong, C., Taper, C.D. (1972). Sorbitol and other carbohydrate variation during growth and cold storage of McIntosh apple fruits. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 52, 743-750.

Corbonaro, M., Mattera, M., Nicoli, S., Bergamo, P., Cappelloni, M. (2002). Modulation of antioxidant compounds in organic vs conventional fruit (peach, Prunus persica L., and pear, Pyrus communis L.). Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 50, 5458-5462.

Ding, C.K., Chachin, K., Ueda, Y., Imahori, Y., Wang, C.Y. (2001). Metabolism of phenolic compounds during loquat fruit development. Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 49, 2883-2888.

Drogoudi, P.D., Michailidis, Z., Pantelidis, G. (2008). Peel and flesh antioxidant content and harvest quality characteristics of seven apple cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 115, 149-153.

Eberhardt, M.V., Lee, C.Y., Liu, R.H. (2000). Antioxidant activity of fresh apples. Nature, 405, 903-904.

Fischer, M., Albrecht, H.J., Büttner, R., Fischer, C., Günter, M., Hartmman, W., Müller, E., Schuricht, W., Spellerberg, B., Störtzer, M., Wolfram, B. (1995). Farbatlas Obstsorten. Eugen Ulmer GmbH and Co., Stuttgart.

Giomaro, G., Karioti, A., Bilia, A.R., Bucchini, A., Giamperi, L., Ricci, D., Fraternale, D. (2014). Polyphenols profile and antioxidant activity of skin and pulp of a rare apple from Marche region (Italy). Chemistry Central Journal, 8, 45.

Gutiérrez-Grijalva, E.P., Ambriz-Pére, D.L., Leyva-López, N., Castillo-López, R.I., Heredia, J.B. (2016). Review: dietary phenolic compounds, health benefits and bioaccessibility. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, 66(2).

Guyot, S., Marnet, N., Djamel, L., Sanoner, P., Drilleau, J.F. (1998). Reversed-phase HPLC following thiolysis for quantitative estimation and characterization of the four main classes of phenolic compounds in different tissue zones of a French cider apple variety (Malus domestica Var. Kermerrien). Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 46,


Hecke, K., Herbinger, K., Veberič, R., Trobec M., Toplak, H., Štampar, F., Keppel, H., Grill, D. (2006). Sugar-, acid-, and phenol contents in apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60, 1136-1140.

Hertog, M.G.L., Hollman, P.C.H., Katan, M.B., Kromhout, D. (1993). Intake of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids and their determinants in adults in The Netherlands. Nutrition and Cancer, 20, 21-29.

Hudina, M., Štampar, F. (2006). Influence of frost damage on the sugars and organic acids contents in apple and pear flowers. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 71, 161−164.

Hyson, D.A. (2011). A comprehensive review of apples and apple components and their relationship to human health. Advances in Nutrition, 2, 408–420.

Jelodarian, S., Ebrahimabadi, A.H., Kashi, F.J. (2013). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Malus domestica fruit extract from Kashan area. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 3(1), 1–6.

Khanizadeh, S., Ding, L., Rekika, D., Yang, R., Charles, M.T., Vigneault, C., Rupasinghe, H.P.V. (2007). Phytochemical distribution among selected advanced apple genotypes developed for fresh market and processing. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 1(2), 13 p.

Khanizadeh, S., Tsao, R., Rekika, D., Yang, R., Charles, M.T., Rupasinghe, H.P.V. (2008). Polyphenol composition and total antioxidant capacity of selected apple genotypes for processing. Journal of Food Compositon and Analysis, 21, 396-401.

Kschonsek, J., Wolfram, T., Stöckl, A., Böhm, V. (2018). Polyphenolic Compounds Analysis of Old and New Apple Cultivars and Contribution of Polyphenolic Profile to the In Vitro Antioxidant Capacity. Antioxidants, 7(20), 14 p.

Lata, B., Trampczynska, A., Paczesna, J. (2009). Cultivar variation in apple peel and whole fruit phenolic composition. Scientia Horticulturae, 121, 176-181.

Lee, K.W., Kim, Y.J., Kim, D., Lee, H.J., Lee, C.Y. (2003). Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity. Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 51, 6516-6520.

Lin, D., Xiao, M., Zhao, J., Li Z., Xing, B., Li, X., Kong, M., Li, L., Zhang, Q., Liu, Y., Chen, H., Qin, W., Wu, H., Chen, S. (2016). An Overview of Plant Phenolic Compounds and Their Importance in Human Nutrition and Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Molecules, 21(10), 19 p.

Marks, S.C., Mullen, W., Crozier, A. (2007). Flavonoid and chlorogenic acid profiles of English cider apples. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87, 719−728.

Mehrabani, L.V., Dadpour, M.R., Delazar, A., Movafeghi, A., Hassanpouraghdam, M.B. (2011). Quantification of phenolic compounds in peel and pupl of ‘Zonouz’ Apple cultivar from Iran. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 16(4), 6390-6395.

Mehrabani, L.V., Hassanpouraghdam, M.B., Dadpour, M.R. (2012). HPLC assisted determination of phenolic compounds in two apple cultivars from Iran. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 10(2), 233-235.

Mikulič Petkovšek, M., Štampar, F., Veberič, R. (2007). Parameters of inner quality of the scab resistant and susceptible apple in organic and integrated production. Scientia Horticulturae, 114, 37-44.

Mikulič Petkovšek, M., Štampar, F., Veberič, R. (2009). Changes in the inner quality parameters of apple fruit from technological to edible maturity. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 93(1), 17-29.

Mikulič Petkovšek, M., Slatnar, A., Štampar, F., Veberič, R. (2010). The influence of organic/integrated production on the content of phenolic compounds in apple leaves and fruits in four different varieties over a 2-year period. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 2366–2378.

Nicolas, J.J., Richard-Forget, F.C., Goupy, P.M., Amiot, M.J., Aubert, S.Y. (1994). Enzymatic browning reaction in apple and apple products. Critical Reviews in food Sciences and Nutrition, 34, 109-157.

Nogueira, A., Biscai, I., Wiecheteck, F.V.B., Denardi, F., Wosiacki, G. (2006). Physical chemical and technological evaluation of the juice of seven apple tree cultivars. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 27, 89-98.

Paganini, C., Nogueira A., Denardi, F., Wosiacki, G. (2004). Industrial fitness analysis of six apple cultivars, considering their physico-chemical evaluation. Ciência e agrotecnologia., 28(6), 1336-1343.

Perez-Ilzarbe, J., Hernandez, T., Estella, I. (1991). Phenolic compounds in apples: varietal differences. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung, 192, 551-554.

Reinders, R.D., Biesterveld, S., Bijker, P.G.H. (2001). Survival of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in a model apple juice medium with different concentrations of proline and ceffeic acid. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 2863-2866.

Róth, E., Berna, A.Z., Beullens, K., Franck, C., Lammertyn, J., Schenk, A., Nicolai, B. (2005). A comparative study of quality attributes of integrated and organically produced apple fruit. Information and technology for sustainable fruit and vegetable production, Frutic 05, 12-16 September, Montpellier, France, 10 p.

Serra, A.T., Rocha, J., Sepodesa, B., Matias, A.A., Feliciano, R.P., Carvalho, A., Bronze, M.R., Duarte, C.M.M., Figueira, M.E. (2012). Evaluation of cardiovascular protective effect of different apple varieties- Correlation of response with composition. Food Chemistry, 135, 2378-2386.

Sharma R. (2014). Polyphenols in health and disease: practice and mechanisms of benefits. Polyphenols in human health and disease, Academic, San Diegop. 757-778.

Shui, G., Leong, L.P. (2002). Separation and determination of organic acids and phenolic compounds in fruit juices and drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography.J. Chromatographia A, 977, 89-96.

Šturm, K., Štampar, F. (1999). Seasonal variation of sugars and organic acids in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in different growing systems. Phyton, 39(3), 91-96.

Sun, J., Chu, Y.F., Wu, X., Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 50, 7449-7454.

Thielen C., Will F., Zacharias J., Dietrich H., Jacob H. (2005). Distribution of dihydrochalcones and flavonols in apple tissue and comparison between fruit and juice. Proceeding of European Symppsoium on Apple Processing, 16-18 March 2005, Rennes, France, 68.

Tokuşoğlu, Ö. (2011). Bioactive phytochemicals in pome fruits. In: Fruit and cereal bioactives sources, chemistry and applications. Eds. Tokuşoğlu Ö., Hall C. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 107-119.

Tsao, R., Yang, R., Young, J.C., Zhu, H. (2003). Polyphenolic profiles in eight apple cultivars using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry , 51, 6347-6353.

Valavanidis, A., Vlachogianni, T., Psomas, A., Zovoili, A., Siatis, V. (2009). Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activity of five apple cultivars grown under organic and conventional agricultural practice. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 44, 1167-1175.

Veberič, R., Vodnik, D., Štampar, F. (2003). Carbon partitioning and seasonal dynamics of carbohydrates in the bark, leaves and fruits of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. ‘Golden delicious’. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 68, 222-226.

Veberič, R., Trobec, M., Herbinger, K., Hofer, M., Grill, D., Štampar, F. (2005). Phenolic compounds in some apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cultivars of organic and integrated production. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 1687–1694.

Vieira, F.G.K., Borges, G.S.C., Copetti, C., Amboni, R.D.M.C., Denardi, F., Fett, R. (2009). Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of six apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown in southern Brazil. Scientia Horticulturae, 122, 412-425.

Vieira, F.G.K., Borges, G.S.C., Copetti, C., Pietro, F.D., Nunes, E.C., Fett, R. (2011). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the apple flesh and peel of eleven cultivars grown in Brazil. Scientia Horticulturae, 128, 261-266.

Vranac, A., Begić-Akagić, A., Hudina, M., Oražem, P., Gaši, F., Spaho, N., Meland, M. (2014). Impact of cultivar and processing stage on the distribution of polyphenols in apples and their juices. Proceedings of 25th International Scientific-Expert Conference of Agriculture and Food Industry – Izmir 2014, Turkey, 165-168.

Vrhovšek, U., Rigo, A., Tonon, D., Mattivi, F. (2004). Quantification of Polyphenols in different apple varieties. Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 52, 6532-38.

Wang, R., McCormick, R., Xuan, H., Streif, J. (2010). Distribution of sugar and organic acid components within the KOB heritage apple cultivar collection. Acta Horticulturae, 858, 89-97.

Wojdyło, A., Oszmianski, J., Laskowski, P. (2008). Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of new and old apple varieties. Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 56, 6520–6530.

Wolfe, K., Wu, X., Liu, R.H. (2003). Antioxidant activity of apple peels. Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 51, 609-614.

Wolfe, K., Liu, R.H. (2003). Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient. Journal of Agriculure and Food Chemistry, 51, 76-83.

Wu J., Gao, H., Zhao, L., Liao, X., Chen, F., Wang, Z., Hu, Z. (2007). Chemical composition of some apple cultivars. Food Chemistry, 103, 88-93.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Asima Akagić, Amila Vranac, Fuad Gasi, Pakeza Drkenda, Nermina Spaho, Sanja Orucevic Zuljevic, Mirsad Kurtovic, Osman Music, Senad Murtic, Metka Hudina

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941