Effects of Boerhavia diffusa L. nom. cons. and Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. extracts on some field insect pests of okra (Aabelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

Emmanuel Tochukwu NNEJI, Robert O. UDDIN II, Abdulrasak K. MUSA


A field study was carried out to assess the efficacy of some botanicals in the control of field insect pests in two varieties of okra. Dry leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed) and fresh and dry root extracts of Boerhavia diffusa served as treatments which were compared with Lambda-cyhalothrin and a control. The experiment was fitted into a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data collected were subjected to Spearman’s correlation analysis and a two-way analysis of variance and significant different means were separated using Fishers Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 5 % level of probability. The results revealed that treated plants generally performed better than the untreated plants as they were taller, had more leaves, branches, wider stem girths and gave higher fruit yield. Fresh root extract of B. diffusa performed better in most parameters measured. A significant positive correlation was observed between insect pest populations, and between growth and yield parameters, while there was a significant negative correlation between overall yield and insect pest population. NHAe 47-4 okra variety performed better than F1-Lucky variety. Fresh root extract of B. diffusa is recommended for management of B. tabaci (Genadius, 1889) and Amrasca biguttula Ishida, 1912 in okra.


botanicals; Boerhavia diffusa; Chromolaena odorata; Bemisia tabaci; Amrasca biguttula; sticky traps

Full Text:



Adams, C. F. (1975). Nutritive value of American foods in common units, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agric Handbook. 425-29.

Adetuyi, F.O., Osagie, A.U. and Adekunle, A. T. (2008). Effects of postharvest storage techniques on the nutritional properties of Benin indigenous Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7, 652-657. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2008.652.657

Adigun, J.A. (2005). Critical period of weed interference in rain-fed and irrigated tomatoes in the Nigerian savanna, Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 2, 32-41. https://doi.org/10.4314/jard.v2i1.42197

Afolabi, C., Akinmoladun, E.O., Ibukun and I.A. Dan-Ologe (2007). Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of extracts from the leaves of Chromolaena odorata. Scientific Research and Essay, 2(6), 191-194. Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/SRE ISSN 1992-2248 © 2007 Academic Journals

Aishwarya Ray (2018). Studies on insect-pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) with special reference to seasonal incidence and bio-rational management of okra shoot and fruit borer (Earias spp.), unpublished thesis; 92 pp.

Anjarwalla, P., Belmain, S., Ofori, D.A., Sola, P., Jamnadass, R., Stevenson, P.C. (2016). Handbook on Pesticidal Plants. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.

Arapitsas, P. (2008). Identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds from okra seeds and skins. Food Chemistry, 110, 1041–1045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.014

Bigarré, L., Chazly, M., Salah, M., Ibrahim, M., Padidam, M., Nicole, M., Peterschmitt, M., Fauquet, C., Thouvenel, J.C. (2001). Characterization of a new Begomo virus from Egypt infecting hollyhock (Althea rosea). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 107, 701-711. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011967232319

Bindhu, V.R., Ganga, S., Dayanandan, S. (2015). Mortality effects of some medicinal plants on the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Fertilizer & Pesticides, 6, 150. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6202.1000150

Brunt, A., Crabtree, K., Gibbs, A. (1990). Viruses of Tropical Plants. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Deepti Malhotra, Amir Khan and Fouzia Ishaq (2013). Phytochemical screening and antibacterial effect of root extract of Boerhavia diffusa L. (Family Nyctaginaceae). Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 5(1), 221-225. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v5i1.310

Dilruba, S., Hasanuzzaman, M., Karim, R., Nahar, K. (2009). Yield response of okra to different sowing time and application of growth hormones. Journal of Horticultural Science. Ornamental Plants, 1, 10-14.

Edward, B. Radcliffe, Abdelaziz Lagnaoui (2007). Potato Biology and Biotechnology.

Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, V.S. Edgar Traoré, Jean-Michel Lett, Nicolas Barro, Gnissa Konaté, Alfred S. Traoré, Oumar Traoré (2010). Impact of okra leaf curl disease on morphology and yield of okra. Crop Protection, 29. (2010)712e716. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2010.02.007

Gopalan, C., Sastri, S. B. V., Balasubramanian, S. (2007). Nutritive value of Indian foods, National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), ICMR, India. P1.

Gordon Ramel (2019). Key to the Identification of Insects to Order, A Few Words About KEYS, Adapted from Harold Oldroyd 1958. https://www.earthlife.net/insects/orders-key.html#key

Kedar, S. C., K. M. Kumaranag, D. S., Bhujbal and N. H. Thodsare4 (2014). Insect Pests of Okra and Their Management. Popular Kheti, 2(3), 112-119.

Kumar, R., Patil, M. B., Patil, S. R., Paschapur, M. S. (2009). Evaluation of Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage as suspending agent in paracetamol suspension. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Technology Research, 1, 658-665.

Lamont, W. (1999). Okra a versatile vegetable crop. Horticultural Technology; 9: 179-184. Lee K, Cho CY, Park SK (1990). The effect of nitrogen fertilizer, plant density and sowing date on the yield of okra. Korean Journal of Crop Science, 35(8), 179-183. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.9.2.179

Lengsfeld, C., Titgemeyer, F., Faller, G., Hensel, A. (2004). Glycosylated compounds from okra inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52, 1495-1503. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030666n

Liu, I. M., Liou, S. S., Lan, T. W., Hsu, F. L., Cheng, J. T. (2005). Myricetin as the active principle of Abelmoschus moschatus to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Medica, 71, 617-621. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-871266

Moekchantuk, T., Kumar, P. (2004). Export okra production in Thailand. Inter-country programme for vegetable IPM in South and SE Asia phase II Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bangkok, Thailand. P1.

Nadkarni, K. M. (1927). Indian Meteria Medica. Nadkarni and Co Bombay. P1.

N’Guessan, K.P., Fargette, D., Fauquet, C., Thouvene, L.J.C. (1992). Aspects of the epidemiology of okra leaf curl virus in Côte d’Ivoire. Tropical Pest Management, 38, 122-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/09670879209371668

Onunkun, O. (2012). Evaluation of aqueous extracts of five plants in the control of flea beetles on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). JBiopest, 5(supplementary), 62–67.

Owolarafe, O. K., Shotonde, H. O. (2004). Some physical properties of fresh okra fruit. Journal of Food Engineering, 63, 299-302. Journal of the Ghana Science Association, 3(3), 136-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.08.002

Praveen, P.M., & N. Dhandapani (2001). Eco-rriendly management of major pests of okra (, (L.) Moench), Journal of Vegetable Crop Production, 7(2), 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1300/J068v07n02_02

Saifullah, M., Rabbani, M. G. (2009). Evaluation and characterization of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.) genotypes. SAARC Journal of Agriculture, 7, 92-99.

Swanson, M.M., Harrison, B.D. (1993). Serological relationships and epitope profiles of isolates of okra leaf curl geminivirus from Africa and the Middle-East. Bio-chimie, 75, 707-711. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9084(93)90101-W

Varmudy, V. (2011). Marketing Survey needed to boost okra exports. Department of economic Vive Kananda College, Puttur Karnataka. P1.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2020.115.1.1299


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Emmanuel Tochukwu Nneji, Robert O. Uddin II, Abdulrasak K. Musa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License.


ISSN 1581-9175     eISSN 1854-1941