Discrimination of drought tolerance in a worldwide collection of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes based on selection indices



Improvement of elite safflower genotypes for drought-tolerance is hampered by a deficiency of effective selection criteria. The present study evaluated 100 genotypes of safflower in terms of their drought tolerance over a period of three years (2016–2018) under both non-stress and drought-stress conditions. The eight drought-tolerance indices of tolerance index (TOL), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), yield stability index (YSI), drought resistance index (DI), and harmonic mean (HARM) were calculated based on seed yield under drought (Ys) and non-drought (Yp) conditions. A high genetic variation was found in drought tolerance among the genotypes studied. The MP, GMP, and STI indices were able to discriminate between tolerant and drought-sensitive genotypes. Plots of the first and second principal components identified drought-tolerant genotypes averaged over the three study years. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three distinct groups using the drought tolerance indices. Ultimately, eight genotypes (namely, G3, G11, G13, G24, G33, G47, G58, and G61) from different origins were detected as more tolerant to drought stress suitable for use in safflower breeding programs in drought-affected areas. The most tolerant and susceptible genotypes could be exploited to produce mapping populations for drought tolerance breeding programs in safflower.


cluster analysis; drought stress; principal component analysis; selection index; yield; safflower

Full Text:



Abdolshahi, R., Safarian, A., Nazari, M., Pourseyedi, S., Mohamadi-Nejad, G. (2013). Screening drought-tolerant genotypes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using different multivariate methods. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 59(5), 685-704. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2012.667080

Anjum, S.H.A., Ashraf U., Zohaib A, Tanverr M., Naeem M., Iftikhar A, Tabassum T., Nazir U. (2017). Growth and developmental responses of crop plants under drought stress: a review. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 104(3), 267-276. https://doi.org/10.13080/z-a.2017.104.034

Ashraf, M. (2010). Inducing drought tolerance in plants: Recent advances. Biotechnology Advances, 28,169-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2009.11.005

Bahrami, F., Arzani, A., Karimi, V. (2014). Evaluation of yield-based drought tolerance indices for screening safflower genotypes. Agronomy Journal, 106(4), 1219-1224. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj13.0387

Basu, S., Ramegowda, V., Pereira, A. (2016). Plant adaptation to drought stress. F1000 Research, 5, 1554. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.7678.1

Blum, A. (2018). Plant Breeding for Stress Environments. CRC press, 231 pp. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781351075718

Clarke, T.C., Parkin, G.W., Ferre, T.P.A. (2008). Soil water content. In: Carter MR, Gregorich EG, editors. Soil sampling and methods of analysis. Pinawa: Canadian Society of Soil Science.

Ebrahimiyan, M., Majidi, M.M., Mirlohi, A., Gheysari, M. (2012). Drought-tolerance indices in a tall fescue population and its polycross progenies. Crop and Pasture Science, 63(4), 360-369. https://doi.org/10.1071/CP11279

FAOSTAT (2016). http://faostat.fao.org.

Fernandez, G.C.J. (1992). Effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. In: C.G. Kuo, editor, Adaptation of Food Crops to Temperature and Water Stress: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Taiwan. 13–18 Aug. 1992. Asian Vegetable Res. and Dev. Ctr., Shanhua, Tainan, Taiwan. p. 257–270.

Fischer, R.A., Maurer, R. (1978). Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars: 1. Grain yield response. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 29, 897-912. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9780897

Gavuzzi, P., Rizza, F., Palumbo, M., Campaline, R.G., Ricciardi, G.L., Borghi, B. (1997). Evaluation of field and laboratory predictors of drought and heat tolerance in winter cereals. Plant Science, 77, 523-531. https://doi.org/10.4141/P96-130

Gholinezhad, E., Darvishzadeh, R., Bernousi, I. (2014). Evaluation of drought tolerance indices for selection of confectionery sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.) landraces under various environmental conditions. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 42(1), 187-201. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha4219394

Golabadi, M., Arzani, A., Mirmohammadi Maibody, S.A.M. (2006). Assessment of drought tolerance in segregating populations in durum wheat. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5, 162-171.

Golkar, P., Karimi S. (2019). Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Breeding. Edited by: Al-Khayri, J.M., Jain, S.M. and Johnson, D.V., In: Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Industrial and Food Crops. Springer. Pub. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23265-8_14

Guttieri, M.J., Stark, J.C., Brien, K., Souza, E. (2001). Relative sensitivity of spring wheat grain yield and quality parameters to moisture deficit. Crop Science, 41, 327-335. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2001.412327x

Hao, Z.F., Li, X.H., Su, Z.J., Xie, C.X., Li, M.S., Liang, X.L., Weng, J.F., Zhang, D.G, Li, L., Zhang, S.H. (2011). A proposed selection criterion for drought resistance across multiple environments in maize. Breeding Science, 61(2), 101-108. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.61.101

Hussain, M.I., Lyra, D.A., Farooq, M., Nikoloudakis, N., Khalid N. (2016). Salt and drought stresses in safflower: a review. Agronomy and Sustainable Development, 36(1), p.4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-015-0344-8

Ilker, E., Tatar, O., Aykut Tonk, F., Tosun, M., Turk, J. (2011). Determination of tolerance level of some wheat genotypes to post-anthesis drought. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 16(1), 59-63.

Khalili, M., Naghavi, M.R., Pour Aboughadareh, A.R., Talebzadeh, J. (2012). Evaluating of drought stress tolerance based on selection indices in spring canola cultivars (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 4(11), 78-85. https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v4n11p78

Kirigwi, F.M., Van Ginkel, M., Trethowan, R., Seaes, R.G., Rajaram, S., Paulsen, G.M. (2004). Evaluation of selection strategies for wheat adaptation across water regimes. Euphytica, 135. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EUPH.0000013375.66104.04

Lan, J. (1998). Comparison of evaluating methods for agronomic drought resistance in crops. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-occidentalis Sinica, 7, 85-87.

Mirzahashemi, M., Golkar, P. and Mohamadinejad, G. (2014). Gene effects for agronomic traits in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under drought stress. Ethno-Pharmaceutical Products, 1(1), 23-28.

Mohammadi, M., Karimizadeh, R. and Abdipour, M. (2011). Evaluation of drought tolerance in bread wheat genotypes under dryland and supplemental irrigation conditions. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(4), 487-493.

Naghavi, M.R., Aboughadareh, A.P., Khalili, M. (2013). Evaluation of drought tolerance indices for screening some of corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars under environmental conditions. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 5(3), 388-393. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb539049

Omidi, A.H., Khazaei, H., Monneveux, P. Stoddard, F. (2012). Effect of cultivar and water regime on yield and yield components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 17, 10-15.

R Core Team. (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Raman, A., Verulkar, S., Mandal, N., Variar, M., Shukla, V., Dwivedi, J., Singh, B., Singh, O., Swain, P., Mall, A., Robin, S. (2012). Drought yield index to select high yielding rice lines under different drought stress severities. Rice, 5(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/1939-8433-5-31

Rauf, S., Al-Khayri, J.M., Zaharieva, M., Monneveux, P. and Khalil, F. (2016). Breeding strategies to enhance drought tolerance in crops. In Advances in plant breeding strategies: agronomic, abiotic and biotic stress traits (pp. 397-445). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22518-0_11

Rizza, F., Badeckb, F.W., Cattivellia, L., Lidestric, O., Di Fonzoc, N., Stancaa, A.M. (2004). Use of a water stress index to identify barley genotypes adapted to rainfed and irrigated conditions. Crop Science, 44, 2127-2137. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2004.2127

Rosielle, A.A., Hamblin, J. (1981). Theoretical aspects of selection for yield in stress and non-stress environments. Crop Science, 21, 43-46. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1981.0011183X002100060033x

Sio-Se Mardeh, A., Ahmadi, A., Poustini, K., Mohammadi, V. (2006). Evaluation of drought resistance indices under various environmental conditions. Field Crops Research, 98, 222 - 229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2006.02.001

Varshney, R.K., Tuberosa, R., Tardieu, F. (2018). Progress in understanding drought tolerance: from alleles to cropping systems. Journal of Experimental Botany, 69(13), 3175 - 3179. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ery187

Vieira, R.A.; Rocha, R.; Scapim, C.A.; Amaral, A.T., Jr.; Vivas, M. (2016). Selection index based on the relative importance of traits and possibilities in breeding popcorn. Genetics and Molecular Research. 15, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.4238/gmr.15027719

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2021.117.1.1656


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Pooran Golkar, Esmaeil Hamzeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad MIRMOHAMMADY MAIBODY

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License.


eISSN 1854-1941