Investigation in physicochemical characteristics of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) extract cake

Hojjat GHARAVI, Mehdi DAVOODI, Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh GHAVIDELl


In spite of freshly eaten, Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) might be dried or processed into confectionary recipes in cakes, as one of the important products in food industries. The experiment was conducted based on complete randomized design with three replications. Treatments were control and three levels of jujube extraction (2, 4, and 6 percent) which added to cake’s formulation and sampling in different time periods. In the present study, the process of baking was in four steps. First of all, dried jujube fruit was mixed with water and its brix was reached 15 using direct heat. In the second step, a final brix of 60 was obtained by rotary evaporator. Then, appropriate amounts of egg, sugar, yogurt, oil, 2, 4, or 6 % jujube extract was mixed using a blender. Finally, baking powder, flour, and vanilla were mixed and the mixture was placed in the oven set at 160 °C for 20 minutes. Physicochemical analysis showed that the cakes containing 4 and 6 % of jujube extract were the best treatments at all time periods. However, analyze of sensational test results revealed that especially panelists evaluations that 6 percentage extract sample was significantly different from the others.


fruity jujube cake; jujube extract; confectionary

Full Text:



AACC. (2000). Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th Ed., 2, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN.

Arunepanlop, B., Morr, C. V., Karleskind, D. & Laye, I. (1996). Partial replacment of egg with proteins with whey in angel food cake. Food Science, 61(5), 1085-1093.

Bigliardi, B. & Galati, F. (2013). Innovation trends in the food industry. The case of functional foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 31(2), 118-129.

Chen, C. F., Lee, J. F., Wang, D., Shen, C. Y., Shen, K. L. & Lin, M. H. (2010). Water extract of (Zizyphus jujuba) attenuates ischemia/reperfusion–induced liver injury in rats (PP106). Transplantation Proceedings, 42, 741–743.

Choi, S. H., Ahn, J. B., Kozukue, N., Levin, C. E. & Friedman, M. 2011. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(12), 6594-6604.

Crisosto, C. H., Crisosto, G. M. & Metheney, P. (2003). Consumer acceptance of ‘Brooks’ and ‘Bing’ cherries is mainly dependent on fruit SSC and visual skin color. Postharvest Biology Technology Journal, 28, 159–167.

Dairou, S., Biyanzi, P., Pallet, D. & Ndjouenkeu, R. (2014). Traditional production, processing and quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana in Savannah Region of Cameroon. Survey Methodology, 76, pp.77.

Delfan, B., Bahmani, M., Hassanzadazar, H., Saki, K. & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2014). Identification of medicinal plants affecting on headaches and migraines in Lorestan Province, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 7(1), 376-379.

Dimitra, M., Lebesi, A. & Constantina, T. (2011). Effect of the addition of different dietary fiber and edible cereal bran sources on the baking and sensory characteristics of cupcakes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(5), 710-722.

Dongying, W., Yan, Z., Yadong, J., Linhong, Y., Su, Y. & Xingbin, Y. (2012). Antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of the polysaccharides from (Zizyphus jujuba) Shaanbeitanzao. Carbohydrate Polymers, 1-29.

Esteki, T. & Urooj, A. (2012). Phytochemical profile and antioxidant potential of different tissues of (Zizyphus jujube Mill.). International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety, 1(3), 144-157.

Guynot, M. E., Marin, S., Sanchis, V. & Ramos, A. J. (2003). Modified atmosphere packaging for prevention of mold spoilage of bakery products with different pH and water activity levels. Journal of Food Production, 10, 1864-1872.

Han, J., Ji, C. J., He, W. J., Shen, Y., Leng, Y., Xu, W. Y., Fan, J. T., Zeng, G. Z., Kong, L. D. & Tan, N. H. (2011). Cyclopeptide alkaloids from Ziziphus apetala. Journal of Natural Products, 74(12), 2571-2575.

Hasler, M. (2009). Functional foods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109, 735-746.

Huan-xia, Z., Hai-sheng, Zh. & Shu-fang, Y. (2015). Phenolic compounds and its antioxidant activities in ethanolic extracts from seven cultivars of Chinese jujube. Food Science and Human Wellness, 3(3-4), 183-190.

McFarlane, I. (2005). Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens. Measurement Science and Technology, 17(2), 241.

National standard of Islamic Republic of Iran. (2006). Cake, Features, and Testing Methods. 2553, third Edition.

Pareek, S. (2017). Nutritional composition of jujube fruit. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 25(6), 463-470.

Qing‐Han, Gao., Chun‐Sen, Wu., Jin‐Gang, Y. U., Min Wang, Y. M. & Cui‐Li, L. (2012). Effect of ripening stage on physicochemical properties and antioxidant profiles of a promising table fruit ‘pear-jujube’ (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.), Scientia Horticulturae, 148(4), 177-184.

Qing-Han, G., Chun-Sen, W. & Min, W. (2013). The Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: A review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61(14), 3351-3363.

Qinqin, Ch., Jinfeng, B., Xinye, W., Jianyong, Y., Linyan, Zh. & Yuhan, Zh. (2015). Drying kinetics and quality attributes of jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Miller) slices dried by hot-air and short- and medium-wave infrared radiation. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 64(2), 759-766.

Suksamrarn, S., Suwannapoch, N., Aunchai, N., Kuno, M., Ratananukul, P., Haritakun, R., Jansakul, C. & Ruchirawat, S. (2005). Ziziphine N, O, P and Q, new antiplasmodial cyclopeptide alkaloids from (Ziziphus oenoplia) var. brunoniana. Tetrahedron, 61(5), 1175-1180.

Wang, B. (2011). Chemical characterization and ameliorating effect of polysaccharide from Chinese jujube on intestine oxidative injury by ischemia and reperfusion, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 48(3), 386-391.

Wang, J., Nakano, K. & Ohashi, S. (2010). Nondestructive evaluation of jujube quality by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 44(4), 1119-1125.

Xiaohong, K., Qiong Chen, X. L., Mianfang, L., Cong, K., Boru, Ch., Ying, Zh. & Zhaohui, X. (2014). Quantitative assessment of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of 15 jujube cultivars. Food Chemistry, 173(15), 1037-1044.

Xie, J. H., Tang, W., Jin, M. L., Li, J. E. & Xie, M. Y. (2016). Recent advances in bioactive polysaccharides from (Lycium barbarum L.) (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.), Plantago spp, and Morus spp.: Structures and functionalities. Food Hydrocolloids, 60, 148-160.

Zhang, C. F., Wu, G. L., Dong, L. L., Tang, J., Bai, Y. X., Zhu, Y. H., Liu, Q. S. & … Gu, J. (2016). Preparation of jujube-cake structure membranes through in situ polymerization of hyperbranched polysiloxane in ethylene-vinyl acetate matrix for separation of ethyl acetate from water. RSC Advances, 6(22), 18308-18318.

Zhen-Yu Ch., Ka, Y. M., Yintong, L., Cheng, P. & Yuanyuan, Z. (2011). Role and classification of cholesterol-lowering functional foods, Journal of Functional Foods, 3(2), 61-69.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Hojjat GHARAVI, Mehdi DAVOODI, Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh GHAVIDELI


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941