Response of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) to integrated application of chemical and manure fertilizers



The investigation of various nutrition systems in hemp plays an influential role in improving its production. An experiment was conducted in University of Birjand, Iran, during 2013-2014, in which manure (0, 10, 20, and 30 t.ha-1 of cow manure) was considered as the main plot and the combination of nitrogen (0, 50, and 100 kg N ha-1 as urea) with phosphorus (0 and 80 kg P ha-1 as triple superphosphate) fertilizers was considered as factorial in subplots. The type of soil fertility management had no significant effect on the percentage of female plants. Applying 20 t.ha-1 of manure plus 100 kg N ha-1 produced the highest biological yield, seed, and leaf extract. The highest oil content was obtained by applying a maximum of 50 kg N ha-1 without the use of phosphorus. The 30 t ha-1 manure plus 100 kg N ha-1 increased the leaf harvest index and decreased seed harvest index. Nitrogen consumption also increased the seed oil content and yield. Phosphorus increased the biomass and extracts of seed and leaves, also biological, seeds and oil yield. It seems hemp responds well to the combined application of nitrogen fertilizer and animal manure, while its response to P fertilization was limited. 


cow manure; hemp; nitrogen; oil yield; phosphorus; seed yield

Full Text:



Abolfazli, F., Forghani, A. and Norouzi, M. (2012). Effects of phosphorus an organic fertilizers on phosphorus fractions in submerged soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 12, 349-362.

Akande, M. O., Oluwatoyinbo, F. I., Makinde, E. A., Adepoju, A. S., and Adepoji I. S. (2010). Response of okra to organic and inorganic fertilization. Nature and Science, 8(11), 261-266.

Akbari, P., Ghalavand, A., Modarres Sanavy, A. M., and Agha Alikhani, M. (2011). The effect of biofertilizers, nitrogen fertilizer and farmyard manure on grain yield and seed quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 7(1), 173-184. (

Akongwubel, A. O., Ewa, U. B., Prince, A., Jude, O., Martins, A., Simon, O., and Nicholas O. (2012). Evaluation of agronomic performance of maize (Zea mays L.) under different rates of poultry manure application in an ultisol of Obubra, Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2(4), 138-144.

Albu, S. G., and Marti, R. 2008. Effect of germination on hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed composition. Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology, 12(2), 27-34. (

Amanulla, A., Hassan, M. J., Nawab, K., and Ali. A. (2007). Response of specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area ratio (LAR) of maize (Zea mays L.) to plant density, rate and timing of nitrogen application. World Applied Sciences Journal, 2(3), 235-243. (

Amiri, M. E. (2009). Comparison of animal manures and chemical fertilizers on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) cultivation. In The Proceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI. UC Davis: Department of Plant Sciences. Retrieved from

Arif, M., Ali, K., Jan, M.T., Shah, Z., Jones, D. L., and Quilliam, R. S. (2016). Integration of biochar with animal manure and nitrogen for improving maize yields and soil properties in calcareous semi-arid agroecosystems. Field Crop Research, 195, 28-35.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC. 15th ed. Arlington, VA, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Ayoola, O. T., and Adeniyan, O. N. (2006). Influence of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on yield and yield components of crops under different cropping systems in south west Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(15), 1386-1392. (

Basalma, D. (2008). The correlation and path analysis of yield and yield components of different winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 4(2), 120-125. (

Baranauskienne, R., Venskutonis, P. R., Viskelis, P., and Dambrausiene, E. (2003). Influence of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield and composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(26), 7751-7758.

Bernneisen, R. (2007). Chemistry and analysis of phytocannabinoids. In M. A. Elsohly (Ed.), Marijuana and the Cannabinoids (pp. 29-30). Totowa, New Jersey: Human Press Inc.

Bouyoucos, G. J. (1951). A recalibration of hydrometer method for making mechanical analysis of soil. Agronomy Journal, 43, 434-438.

Chang, X., and Martin, P. (2014). N, P and K fertilizers alter plant growth, essential oil yield and gender of sweet Gale (Myrica gale L). The Open Plant Science Journal, 8, 9-17.

Cheng, L., Ma, F., and Ranwala, D. (2004). Nitrogen storage and its interaction with carbohydrates of young apple trees in response to nitrogen supply. Tree Physiology, 24, 91-98.

Cvetkov, M., Šantavec, I., Kocjan Ačko, D., and Tajnšek, A. (2010). Soil organic matter content according to different management system within long-term experiment. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 95, 79-88. (

Dadkhah, A. (2012). Effect of chemicals and bio-fertilizers on yield, growth parameters and essential oil contents of funnel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller.). Journal of Medicinal Plants and By-products (JMPB). 1(2), 101-105. (

Dantas, M. S. M., Rolim, M. M., Pedrosa, E. M. R., Silva, M. M. D. S., and Dantas, D. D. C. (2017). Growth and seed yield of sunflower on soil fertilized with Cassava wastewater. Revista Caatinga, 30(4), 963-970.

Da Porto, C., Decorti, D., and Natolino, A. (2014). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of volatile compounds from industrial Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 7, 8-14. (

Esmaeilian, Y., Nouri, H., Amiri, E., Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, M., Babaeian, M., and Tavassoli, A. (2011). Investigation the influences of manure sources and chemical fertilizers on yield, protein and oil content of sunflower under drought stress. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(10), 1084-1089. (

Fathordoobady, F., Singh, A., Kitts, D. D., and Pratap Singh, A. (2019). Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) extract: anti-microbial properties, methods of extraction, and potential oral delivery. Food Reviews International, 35(7), 664-684.

Faux, A. M., Draye, X., Lambert, R., d’Andrimont, R., Raulier, P., and Bertin, P. (2013). The relationship of stem and seed yields to flowering phenology and sex expression in mooecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 47, 11-23.

Flajšman, M., Šantavec, I., Kolmanič, A., Košmelj, K., and Kocjan-Ačko, D. (2019). Agronomic performance and stability of seed, protein and oil yields of seven soybean cultivars determined in field experiments in Slovenia. Genetika, 51(1), 31-46.

Ghosh, P. K., Ramesh, P., Bandyopadhay, K. K., Tripathi, A. K., Hati, K. M., and Misra, A. K. (2004). Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer-NPK on three cropping systems in vertisoils of semi-arid tropics. I. Crop yields and systems in performance. Bioresource Technology, 95, 77-83.

Graciano, C., Goya, J. F., Frangi, J. L., and Guiament, J. J. (2006). Fertilization with phosphorus increases soil nitrogen absorption in young plants of Eucalyptus grandis. Forest Ecology and Management, 236(2-3), 202-210.

García-Tejero, I. F., Durán-Zuazo, V. H., Pérez-Álvarez, R., Hernández, A., Casano, S., Morón, M., and Muriel-Fernández, J. L. (2014). Impact of plant density and irrigation on yield of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a Mediterranean semi-arid environment. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 16(4), 887-895. (

Hall, J., Bhattarai, S. P., and Midmore, D. J. (2013). Review of flowering control in industrial hemp. Journal of Natural Fibers 9(1), 23-36.

Hendawy, S. F., El-Sherbeny, S. E., El-Razik, T. M., Hagazy, M. H., and Hussein, M. S. (2014). Effect of NP fertilization on growth and essential oil of lovage plants under Egyptian conditions. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 3(4), 1031-1036.

Hendawy, S. F., and Khalid, Kh. A. (2011). Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on yield and essential oil of chamomile flower heads. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 5(1): 43-48. (

Hoffman, G., and Cleemput, O. (2004). Soil and Plant Nitrogen. 1st ed. Paris, France: International Fertilizer Industry Association.

Jackson, M. L. (1958). Soil Chemical Analysis. 1st ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice- Hall, Inc.

Kareem, I. (2013). Effects of phosphorus fertilizer treatments on vegetative growth, tuberous yield and phosphorus uptake of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(22), 2681-2684.

Khan, B.A., Warner, P. and Wang, H. (2014). Antibacterial properties of hemp and other natural fibre plants: A review. BioResources, 9(2), 3642-3659. (

Leizer, C., Ribnicky, D., Poulev, A., Dushenkov, S., and Raskin, I. (2000). The composition of hemp seed oil and its potential as an important source of nutrition. Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional & Medical Foods, 2(4), 35-53.

Madras, B. K. (2015). Update of cannabis and its medical use. In Proceedings of the 37th Meeting of the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. November 16-20, Geneva, Switzerland: The World Health Organization. Retrieved from

Maobe, S. N., Akundabweni, L. S. M., Mburu, M. W. K., Ndufa, J. K., Mureithi, J. G., Gachene, C. K. K., Makini, F. W., and Okello, J. J. (2010). Effect of mucuna green manure and inorganic fertilizer urea nitrogen sources and application rates on harvest index of maize (Zea mays L.). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(5), 532-539. ( (5)/10.pdf)

Marjanović-Jeromela, A., Marinković, R., Mijić, A., Jankulovska, M., and Zdunić, Z. (2007). Inter-relationship between oil yield and other quantitative traits in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Central European Agriculture, 8(2), 165-170.

Milewicz, M., and Sawicki, J. (2012). Mechanisms of sex determination in plants. Časopis Slezského Zemského Muzea (A), 61(2), 123-129.

Mohammadi, M., Tobeh, A., Vahidpour, H. R., and Fakhari, R. (2013). Effects of biological fertilizers on essential oil components and quantitative and qualitative yield of lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 5, 1374-1380.

Minotti, P. L., Williams, D. C., and Jackon, W. A. (1969). Nitrate uptake by wheat as influenced by ammonium and other cations. Crop Science, 9, 9-14.

Mullins, G. (2009). Phosphorus, agriculture and the environment. Virginia Cooperative Extension; Virginia State University. (Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences). Retrieved from

Murata, Y. (1969). Physiological responses to nitrogen in plants. In D. E. Jerry, Haskins, F. A. Sullivan, C. Y. Van Bavel, C. H. M., and Dinauer, R. C. (Eds.), Proceedings of a Symposium on Physiological Aspects of Crop Yield (pp. 235-259). Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska. American Society of Agronomy & Crop Science Society of America.

Papastylianou, P., Kakabouki, I., and Travlos, I. (2018). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on growth and yield of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 46, 197-201.

Peiretti, P. G. (2009). Influence of the growth stage of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) on fatty acid content, chemical composition and gross energy. Agricultural Journal, 4, 27-31. (

Poisa, L., and Adamovics, A. (2010). Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an environmentally friendly energy plant. Environmental and Climate Technologies 5, 80-85.

Rajesware Rao, B. R., Singh, K., Kaul, P. N., and Bhattacharya, A. K. (1989). The effect of plant spacing and application of N and P fertilizers on the productivity and nutrient uptake of davana (Artemisia pallens Wall). International Journal of Tropical Agriculture 7, 229-236.

Rathke, G. W., Christen, O., and Diepenbrock, W. (2005). Effects of nitrogen source and rate on productivity and quality of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) grown in different crop rotations. Field Crops Research, 94,103–113.

Reed, A. J., Singletary, G. W., Schussler, J. R., Willianmson, D. R., and Christy A. L. 1988. Shading effects on dry matter and nitrogen partitioning, kernel number, and yield of maize. Crop Science, 28, 819-825.

Riahi, L., Shokrpour, M., Salami, S. A., and Khandan, A. (2016). Study of some quantitative traits associations and their application in characterization of Iranian accessions of Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Iranian Journal of Filed Crop Science, 46(4), 629-639.

Rurangwa, E., Vanlauwe, B., and Giller, K. E. (2018). Benefits of inoculation, P fertilizer and manure on yields of common bean and soybean also increase yield of subsequent maize. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 261, 219-229.

Shams, A., Abadian, H., Akbari, G., Koliai, A., and Zeinali, H., 2012. Effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on amount of essence, biological yield and harvest index of Matricaria chamomile. Annals of Biological Research, 3(8), 3856-3860.

Shams, A., Asadi Kapourchal, S., and Shakouri, M. J. (2013). Assessing the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on yield of Thymus daenensis under dry farming condition. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 13(6), 793-797.

Thomas, B. F., and Pollard, G. T., (2016). Preparation and distribution of cannabis and cannabis-derived dosage formulations for investigational and therapeutic use in the United States. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7, 285.

Truta, E., Olteanu, Z., Surdu, S., Zamfirache, M. M., and Oprica, L. (2007). Some aspects of sex determinism in hemp. Secţiunea Genetică şi Biologie Moleculară (Journal of Experimental and Molecular Biology), 8(2), 31-39.

Walkley, A., and Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37(1), 29-38.

Yadav, R. D., Keshwa, G. L. and Yadva. S. S. (2002). Effect of integrated use of FYM, urea and sulphur on growth and yield of isabgol (Plantago ovata). Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 25, 668-671.

Zahedifard, M., Sharafzadeh, Sh., Zolfibavariani, M., and Zare, M. (2014). Influence of nitrogen and vermicompost on grain and oil yield of rapeseed CV. RGS003. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 3(7), 54-57.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Samaneh Laleh, Majid Jami Al-Ahmadi, Soheil Parsa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941