Effects of different nitrogen levels on phytotoxicity of some allelopathic crops

Y. NOROUZI, G. R. MOHAMMADI, I. NOSRATTI

Abstract


Intensive usage of herbicides can result in the serious negative impacts on environment. Allelopathy by reducing seed germination and early seedling growth can play a fundamental role in suppressing weeds in crop fields. The effectiveness of allelochemicals is governed by different factors such as soil nutrient status, pH and microorganisms. Outdoor pot experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran, in 2013, to evaluate the effects of different levels of N fertilizer (0, 150, 300 kg ha-1) on the suppressing effects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plant materials on emergence and growth parameters of some weed species including Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Results indicated that adding plant materials of tobacco, sorghum, and alfalfa substantially reduced seed germination and early growth of the tested weeds. However, the weed species responded differently to the presence of the allelopathic plant materials. The use of N fertilizer had significant effects on the inhibitory potentials of the allelopathic plants. However, we didn't find consistent trends regarding the responses of the allelopathic crops to elevated N fertilizer levels in related to the traits under study.

Keywords


alfalfa, allelopathy, nitrogen, sorghum, tobacco, weeds

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adkins S.W. and Adkins A.L. 1994. Effect of potassium nitrate and ethephon on fate of wild oat (Avena fatua) seeds in soil. Weed Science 42: 353-357.

Adkins S.W., Bellairs S.M. and Loch D.S. 2002. Seed dormancy mechanisms in warm season grass species. Euphytica 126: 13–20. DOI: 10.1023/A:1019623706427

Alsaadawi, I.S. 1988. Biological suppression of nitrification by selected cultivars of Helianthus annuus L. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14: 722-732. DOI: 10.1007/BF01018768

Alsaadawi, I.S., Al-Uqaili, J.K., Al-Rubeaa, A.J. and Al-Hadithy, S.M. 1986. Allelopathic suppression of weeds and nitrification by selected cultivars of Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench). Journal of Chemical Ecology 12: 209-219. DOI: 10.1007/BF01045604

Batish, D.R., Singh H., Jasvir P., Andher P.K., Arora, V. and Kohli R.K. 2002. Phytotoxic effect of Parthenium residues on the selected soil properties and growth of chickpea and radish. Weed Biology and Management 2: 73–78. DOI: 10.1046/j.1445-6664.2002.00050.x

Blum U. 1998. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions. Journal of Chemical Ecology 24: 685–708. DOI: 10.1023/A:1022394203540

Chon, S.U. and Kim Y.M. 2004. Herbicidal potential and quantification of suspected allelochemicals from four grass crop extracts. J. Agron. Crop Science 190:145–150. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-037X.2004.00088.x

Dilipkumar, M., Adzemi, M.A. and Chuah T.S. 2012. Effects of soil types on phytotoxic activity of pretilachlor in combination with sunflower leaf extracts on barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Weed Science 60:126–132. DOI: 10.1614/WS-D-11-00075.1

Ellis, R.H. and Roberts, E.H. 1980. Towards Rational Basis for Testing Seed Quality, pp. 605-635 in Hebblethwaite, P.D. (Ed.) Seed Production. Butterworths, London, UK.

Florentine S.K., Westbrooke M.E. and Graham R. 2005 Invasion of the noxious weed Nicotiana glauca after an Orobanche crenata in legumes. Crop Protection 26: 1166- 1173.

Hartmann K., Kroosz C. and Mollwo A. 1997. Phytochrome-mediated photocontrol of the germination of the Scentless Mayweed, Matricaria inodora L., and its sensitization by nitrate and temperature. Journal Photoch Photobiol Biology 40: 240-252. DOI: 10.1016/S1011-1344(97)00064-X

Hedge R.S. and Miller D.A. 1990. Allelopathy and autotoxicity in alfalfa: Characterization and effects of preceding crops and residue incorporation. Crop Science 30: 1255–1259. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000060020x

Hiradate, S., Ohse, K., Furubayashi, A. and Fujii, Y. 2010. Quantitative evaluation of allelopathic potentials in soils: Total activity approach. Weed Science 58: 258-264. DOI: 10.1614/WS-D-09-00085.1

Holm, L.G., Plucknett L. and Herberger J.P. 1991. The world’s worst weeds, distribution and biology krieger publishing company. Malabor. Florida.

Inderjit, 2001. Soil environment effects on allelochemical activity. Agronomy Journal 93: 79-84.

Inderjit, 2005. Soil microorganisms: An important determinant of allelopathic activity. Plant and Soil 274: 227-236.

Jensen E.H., Hartman B.J., Lundin F., Knapp S. and Brookerd B. 1981. The autotoxicity of alfalfa. In: Nevada Agricultural Experimental Report, Report 144. Nevada Agriculture Experiment Report, Nevada Cooperative Extension Publication, Reno,Nevada.

Jobidon, R. and Thibault, J.R. 1982. Growth inhibition of nodulated and un-nodulated Alnus crispa seedlings by populous balsmifera. American Journal of Botany 69: 1213-1223. DOI: 10.2307/2442745

Klein R.R. and Miller D.A. 1980. Allelopathy and its role in agriculture. Communications in Soil Sciences and Plant Analysis 11:43–56. DOI: 10.1080/00103628009367014

Kobayashi, K. 2004. Factors affecting phytotoxic activity of allelochemicals in soil. Weed Biology and Management 4: 1-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-6664.2003.00112.x

Kumar, P., Gagliardo, R. and Chilton, W. 1993. Soil transformation of wheat and corn metabolites mboa and DIMBOA into aminophenoxazinones. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19: 2453-2461. DOI: 10.1007/BF00980682

Liebman, M. and Sundberg D.N. 2006. Seed mass affects the susceptibility of weed and crop species to phytotoxins extracted from red clover shoots. Weed Science 54:340–345.

Macias F.A., Galindo J.C.G., Molinillo J.M.G. and Cutler H.G. 2004. Allelopathy: Chemistry and mode of action of allelochemicals. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 372 pp.

Nielsen K.F.,Cuddy T. and Woods W. 1960. The influence of the extracts of some crops and soil residues on germination and growth. Can. Journal Plant Science 40: 188–197. DOI: 10.4141/cjps60-024

Ponder F. Jr and Tadros S.H. 1985. Juglone concentration in soil beneath black walnut interplanted with nitrogen-fixing species. Journal of Chemical Ecology 11: 937–942. DOI: 10.1007/BF01012079

Rehman, A., Cheema Z.A., Khaliq A., Arshad M. and Mohsan S. 2010. Application of sorghum, sunflower and rice water extract combinations helps in reducing herbicide dose for weed management in rice. Int. Journal Agriculture Biology 12: 901–906.

Rice, E.L. 1992. Allelopathic effects on nitrogen cycle. In: Allelopathy: Basic and Applied Aspects. (Eds., S.J.H. Rizivi and V. Rizivi). Chapman and Hall Press, London. Chapter 4 pp. 31-58. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-2376-1_4

SAS Institute, 2003. SAS/STAT. User’s Guide. Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Schmidt, S.K. and Lipson, D.A. 2004 Microbial growth under the snow: Implications for nutrient and allelochemical availability in temperate soils. Plant and Soil 259: 1-7. DOI: 10.1023/B:PLSO.0000020933.32473.7e

Sène, M., Doré, T. and Pellissier, F. 2000. Effect of Phenolic Acids in Soil under and Between Rows of a Prior Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Crop on Germination, Emergence, and Seedling Growth of Peanut (Arachis hypogea). Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 625-637. DOI: 10.1023/A:1005420020135

Singh H.P., Batish D.R. and Kohli R.K. 2003. Allelopathic interactions and allelochemicals: New possibilities for sustainable weed management. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 22: 239-311. DOI: 10.1080/713610858

Teasdale J.R. and Pillai P. 2005. Contribution of ammonium to stimulation of smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) germination by extracts of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) residue. Weed Biology and Management 5: 19-25. DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-6664.2005.00155.x

Tesar, M.B. 1986. Re-establishing alfalfa after alfalfa without autotoxicity. In: Establishment of forage crops by conservation tillage methods: Pest control. Proceedings of the International Symposium, State College, PA 15–19.

Tongma, S., Kobayashi, K. and Usui, K. 2001. Allelopathic activity of Mexican sunflower [Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray] in soil under natural field conditions and different moisture conditions. Weed Biology and Management 1: 115-119. DOI: 10.1046/j.1445-6664.2001.00020.x

Weston, L.A. and Putnam, A.R. 1985. Inhibition of growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of legumes by quack grass (Agropyron repens). Crop Science 25: 561-566. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci1985.0011183X002500030031x

Xuan, T.D., Tawata, S., Khanh, T.D. and Chung, I.M. 2005. Decomposition of Allelopathic Plants in Soil. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191: 162-171. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci1985.0011183X002500030031x

Zimdahl, R.L. 2007. Fundamentals of Weed Science. Academic Press. Colorado.

Zwain, K.H.Y., Alsaadawi, I.S. and Shahata, H.A. 1998. Effect of decomposing wheat residues on growth and biological nitrogen fixation of blue green algae. Allelopathy Journal 6: 13-20.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2016.107.1.17

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Y. NOROUZI, G. R. MOHAMMADI, I. NOSRATTI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License.

                            


ISSN 1581-9175     eISSN 1854-1941