Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) as cash-cover crop in an organic vegetable system

Anna LENZI, Ada BALDI, Romano TESI

Abstract


In organic vegetable systems green manure crops play an important role as a nitrogen source, but they cover the soil for several months without producing a direct income. Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) provides both heads to be harvested and particularly abundant plant residues to be possibly incorporated into the soil, so it may play a double role of cash and cover crop. This paper describes an on-farm study in which seed-propagated artichoke, cultivated as an annual crop, preceded zucchini squash and lettuce cultivated in sequence within a vegetable organic system. Artichoke produced about 7 t ha-1 of saleable heads and left, after harvest, 50.3 t ha-1 of fresh biomass usable as green manure. Zucchini squash and lettuce following artichoke showed a significant increase in yield when artichoke residues were incorporated into the soil. Furthermore, a residual positive effect of green manure on soil fertility was detected after lettuce harvest.

 


Keywords


cynara scolymus; globe artichokes; organic agriculture; biological production; cash crops; green manures; nitrogen; crop yield; soil fertility; biomass; crop residues; organic matter

Full Text:

PDF

References


Braz A.J.B.P., Silveira P.M., Kliemann H.J., Zimmermann F.P. 2004. Acumulação de nutrients em folhas de milheto e dos capins braquiária e mombaça. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, 34: 83- 87.

Burket J.Z., Hemphill D.D., Dick R.P. 1997. Winter cover crops and nitrogen management in sweet corn and broccoli rotations. HortScience, 32: 664-668.

Cabilovski R.R., Manojlovic M.S., Bogdanovic D.M., Rodic V., Bavec M. 2011. Fertilization economy in organic lettuce production. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 35: 745-756; DOI: 10.1080/10440046.2011.606491

Calabrese N., De Palma E., Bianco V.V. 2004. Yield and quality of new commercial seed grown artichoke hybrids. Acta Horticulturae, 660: 77-82.

Calabrese N., De Palma E., Bianco V.V. 2005. Yield and quality of seed propagated artichoke hybrid cultivars grown for four years. Acta Horticulturae, 681: 135-142.

Calabrese N., Elia A., Sarli G. 2000. Yield and quality of new artichoke cultivars propagated by seed. Acta Horticulturae, 371: 189-193.

Ciancolini A., Alignan M., Pagnotta M.A., Miquel J., Vilarem G., Crinò P. 2013. Morphological characterization, biomass and pharmaceutical compounds in Italian globe artichoke genotypes. Industrial Crops and Products, 49: 326-333; DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.05.015

Clark A. (ed.). 2012. Managing Cover Crops Profitably. Third Edition. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program. Handbook Series Book 9. University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

Creamer N.G., Baldwin K.R. 2000. An evaluation of summer cover crops for use in vegetable production systems in North Carolina. HortScience, 35: 600- 603.

Crusciol C.A.C., Soratto R.P. 2009. Nitrogen supply for cover crops and effects on peanut grown in succession under a no-till system. Agronomy Journal, 101: 41-46; DOI: 10.2134/agronj2008.0054

Davies A., Titterington A.J., Cochrane C. 1995. Who buys organic food? A profile of the purchasers of organic food in Northern Ireland. British Food Journal, 97: 17-23; DOI: 10.1108/00070709510104303

Dimitri C., Greene C. 2000. Recent growth patterns in the U.S. organic foods market. Agriculture Information Bulletin, 777: 1-9.

EC DG for Agriculture and Rural Development. 2013. Facts and figures on organic agriculture in the European Union.

Gaskell M., Smith R. 2007. Nitrogen sources for organic vegetable crops. HortTechnology, 17: 431- 441.

Griffen T.S., Hesterman O.B. 1991. Potato response to legume and fertilizer nitrogen sources. Agronomy Journal, 83: 1004-1012; DOI: 10.2134/agronj1991.00021962008300060016x

Hay J. 1989. The consumer’s perspective on organic food. Canadian Institute of Food Science Technology Journal, 22: 95-99; DOI: 10.1016/S0315-5463(89)70322-9

Honeycutt C.W., Clapham W.M., Leach S.S. 1995. Influence of crop rotation on selected chemical and physical soil properties in potato cropping systems. American Potato Journal, 72: 721-735;DOI: 10.1007/BF02849157

Honeycutt C.W., Clapham W. M., Leach S.S. 1996. Crop rotation and N fertilization effects on growth, yield, and disease incidence in potato. American Potato Journal, 73: 45-61; DOI: 10.1007/BF02854760

Ierna A., Mauromicale G. 2004. Calendario di produzione, resa e caratteristiche dei capolini di ibridi di carciofo a propagazione gamica. Sementi Elette, 4: 37-42.

INEA 2013. Annuario dell’Agricoltura Italiana 2012, Volume LXVI. INEA, Roma, Italy.

Jarvis S.C., Stockdale E.A., Shepherd M.A., Powlson D.S. 1996. Nitrogen mineralization in temperate agricultural soils: processes and measurement. Advances in Agronomy, 57:187-237; DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60925-6

Jolly D.A., Schutz G.H., Diaz-Knauf K.V., Johal J. 1989. Organic foods: Consumer attitudes and use. Food Technology, 43: 60-65.

Lattanzio V., Kroon P.A., Linsalata V., Cardinali A. 2009. Globe artichoke: A functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. Journal of Functional Foods, 1: 131-144; DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2009.01.002

Lenzi A., Antichi D., Bigongiali F., Mazzoncini M., Migliorini P., Tesi R. 2009. Effect of different cover crops on organic tomato production. Renewable Agriculture and Food System, 24: 92- 101; DOI: 10.1017/S1742170508002445

Myers R.J.K., Palm C.A., Cuevas E., Gunatilleke I.U.N., Brossard M. 1994. The synchronization of nutrient mineralization and plant nutrient demand. In P.L. Woomer and M.J. Swift (eds.). The Biological Management of Tropical Soil Fertility. Wiley-Sayce Publication, Chichester, UK. p. 81- 116.

O’Donovan P., McCarthy M. 2002. Irish consumer preference for organic meat. British Food Journal, 104: 353-370; DOI: 10.1108/00070700210425778

Padel S., Foster C. 2005. Exploring the gap between attitudes and behavior. Understanding why consumers buy or do not buy organic food. British Food Journal, 107: 606-625; DOI: 10.1108/00070700510611002

Ranells, N.N., Wagger M.G. 1996. Nitrogen release from grass and legume cover crop monocultures and bicultures. Agronomy Journal, 88: 777-882; DOI: 10.2134/agronj1996.00021962008800050015x

Raviv M. 2010. Is organic horticulture sustainable? Chronica Horticulturae, 50:7-14.

Sainju U.M., Singh B.P., Whitehead W.F. 2001. Comparison of the effect of cover crops and nitrogen fertilization on tomato yield, root growth, and soil properties. Scientia Horticulturae, 201-214; DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4238(01)00264-3

Shennan C. 1992. Cover crops, nitrogen cycling and soil properties in semi-irrigated vegetable production systems. HortScience, 27: 749-754.

Snapp S.S., Swinton S.M., Labarta R., Mutch D., Black J.R., Leep R., Nyiraneza J., O’Neil, K. 2005. Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs and performance within cropping system niches. Agronomy Journal, 97: 322-32.

Tesi R. 2010. Orticoltura Mediterranea Sostenibile. Patron Editore, Bologna, Italy. Tesi R., Lenzi A. 2005a. Spring production of artichoke propagated by seed. Proceedings of IV IC on Artichoke. Acta Horticultureae, 681: 159-162.

Tesi R., Lenzi A. 2005b. Nutrizione azotata per un’orticoltura sostenibile. Italus Hortus, 12: 57-73.

Thönnissen C., Midmore D.J., Ladha J.K., Olk D.C., Schmidhalter U. 2000a. Legume decomposition and nitrogen release when applied as green manures to tropical vegetable production systems. Agronomy Journal, 92: 253-260; DOI: 10.2134/agronj2000.922253x

Thönnissen C., Midmore D.J., Ladha J.K., Holmer R.J., Schmidhalter U. 2000b. Tomato crop response to short-duration legume green manures in tropical vegetable systems. Agronomy Journal, 92: 245- 253; DOI: 10.2134/agronj2000.922245x

Thorup-Kristensen K. 2006. Root growth and nitrogen uptake of carrot, early cabbage, onion and lettuce following a range of green manures. Soil Use and Management, 22: 29-38; DOI: 10.1111/j.1475- 2743.2005.00012.x

Thorup-Kristensen K., Magid J., Jensen L.S. 2001. Catch crops and green manures as biological tools in nitrogen management in temperate zones. Advances in Agronomy, 79: 227-302; DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2113(02)79005-6

Werner J., Alvensleben R.V. 1984. Consumer attitudes towards organic food in Germany. Acta Horticulturae, 155: 221-227.

Wyland L.J., Jackson L.E., Chaney W.E., Klonsky K., Koike S.T., Kimple B. 1996. Winter cover crops in a vegetable cropping system: Impacts on nitrate leaching, soil water, crop yield, pests and management costs. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 59: 1-17; DOI: 10.1016/0167- 8809(96)01048-1

Yiridoe E.K., Bonti-Ankomah S., Martin R.C. 2005. Comparison of consumer perceptions and preference toward organic versus conventionally produced foods: A review and update of the literature. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 20: 193-205; DOI: 10.1079/RAF2005113




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2015.105.1.06

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Acta agriculturae Slovenica

 

Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License.

                            


ISSN 1581-9175     eISSN 1854-1941