Soil of the lower valley of the Dragonja river (Slovenia)



Soil of the lower valley of the river Dragonja developed under specific soil-forming factors. Soil development in the area was influenced by alluvial sediments originating from surrounding hills, mostly of flysch sequence rocks, as a parent material, Sub-Mediterranean climate and the vicinity of the sea. Different soil classification units (Gleysol and Fluvisol) were proposed for that soil in previous researches. The aim of our study was the evaluation of morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soil, based on detailed soil description and analyses, and to define the appropriate soil classification units. Field examinations revealed that the soil had a stable blocky or subangular structure and did not express substantial hydromorphic forms. Soil pH value was ranging from 6.9 to 7.5. In most locations electroconductivity (ECe) did not exceed 2 ds/m. Base saturation was high (up to 99 %), with a majority of Ca2+ ions. Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) was ranging from 0.2 to 3.8 %, which is higher compared to other Slovenian soils but does not pose a risk to soil structure. Soil has silty clay loam texture with up to 66 % of silt. Prevailing minerals were quartz, calcite and muscovite/illite. No presence of swelling clay mineral montmorillonite was detected. According to Slovenian soil classification, we classified the examined soil as alluvial soil. According to WRB soil classification, the soil was classified as Cambisol.


rivers; alluvial soils; cambisols; soil types; sedimentation; soil classification; soil salinity; site factors; chemicophysical properties

Full Text:



Bašić I. 1976. Pedološko-melioraciona studija doline Dragonje i Drnice. Poljoprivredni inštitut Zagreb, Inštitut za pedologiju i poljoprivredne melioracije Zagreb: 60 p.

Brady N.C., Weil R.R. 2002. The Nature and Properties of Soil. 13th edition. Pearson Education Inc: 960 p.

ISO 10390, 2005. Soil Quality-Determination of pH. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

ISO 10693, 1995. Determination of Carbonate Content. Volumetric Method. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

ISO 11277, 2009. Determination of Particle Size Distribution in Mineral Soil Material-Method by Sieving and Sedimentation. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

ISO 11464, 2006. Soil Quality-Pretreatment of Samples for Physico-chemical Analysis. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

ISO 13878, 1987. Determination of Total Nitrogen Content by Dry Combustion (“Elemental Analysis”). International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

ISO 14235, 1998. Soil Quality- Determination of Organic Carbon by Sulfochromic Oxidation. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

ISO 11274, 1998. Soil quality — Determination of the water retention characteristic — Laboratory methods. International Organization for Standardization, Genève, Switzerland.

IUSS Working Group WRB. 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014.

International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome:181 p.

FAO. 2006. Guidelines for soil description. 4 thedition. Rome: 97 p.

Matičič B. 1984. Izvajanje drenažnih sistemov. UEK v Ljubljani, VDO Biotehniška fakulteta, VTOZD za agronomijo, Katedra za melioracije in urejanje kmetijskega prostora: 358 p.

Munsell soil color charts. 1971 and 2013. Munsel color division. Kollmorgen corporation Baltimore: 7 tabels.

Ogorelec B., Mišič M., Šercelj A., Cimerman F., Faganeli J., Stegnar P. 1981. Sediment sečoveljske soline. Geologija, 24/2: 179–216 p.

ÖNORM L 1087. 1993. Chemische Bodenuntersuchungen Bestimmung von pflanzenverfügbarem Phosphat und Kalium nach der Calcium-Acetat-Lactat (CAL)-Methode, Österreichisches Normungsinstitut: 4p.

Pleničar M., Polšak A., Šikič D. 1973a. Osnovna geološka karta SFRJ Trst 1:100000. Tolmač lista Trst: L 33-88. Beograd. Zvezni geološki zavod Beograd: 68 p.

Pleničar M., Polšak A., Šikić D.. 1973b. Tolmač za list Trst: L 33-88: Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija, osnovna geološka karta, 1:100 000: 68 p.

Prus T. Zbijanje in zaslanjevanje tal v Sloveniji. 2007. In: Strategija varovanja tal v Sloveniji (Knapič M. ed): 103-110 p.

Rowell L. D. 1994. Soil science. Methods & Applications. Longman group UK Limited: 350 p.

Rupreht J. 2008. Pedološko poročilo o lastnostih tal na delu Sečoveljske doline: 13 p.

Slovenian environment agency, 2014: (January, 2015).

Soil map of Slovenia 1:25.000 (1999-2015); Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana – digital version Soil Survey laboratory methods manual, 1992.

Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, Version 2.0.

Stepančič D., Lobnik F., Prus T., Rupreht J. 1984. Tla slovenskega primorja. Biotehniška fakulteta, VTOZD za agronomijo, Katedra za pedologijo, prehrano rastlin in ekologijo: 47 p.

Škorić A. 1986. Postanak, razvoj i sistematika tla. Fakultet poljoprivrednih znanosti Sveučilišta u Zagrebu: 172 p.

Šporar M., Rupreht J., Lobnik F. (Ur.) 1994. Pedološka karta Slovenije 1:25000. PK4612. Buje. Ljubljana, Biotehniška fakulteta, Agronomija, Center za pedologijo in varstvo okolja. 1 zvd. barv.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Acta agriculturae Slovenica


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941