Possibilities of environmentally acceptable control methods of American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball, 1932)

Žiga LAZNIK, Stanislav TRDAN


The American Grapevine Leafhopper (AGL) (Scaphoideus titanus Ball, 1932) is a small insect of the family leafhoppers (Cicadellidae), originally spread across North America. Specie has been introduced to Europe, where is known primarily as a vector of phytoplasma Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD), (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis), a disease-causing grapevine yellows. AGL was first found in Slovenia in 1983. First occurrence of grapevine yellows was confirmed in Slovenia in 2005. Since no effective biological control agents are known to date, AGL populations are suppressed using insecticides during the host plant's growth period. Some researchers reported that it is in both continents (North America, Europe) abundance of natural enemies of the AGL very small. Researchers reported that some parasitoids (Drynidae: Hymenoptera and Pipunculidae: Diptera) parasitize the AGL, but the percentage of efficiency is very low (from 1.3 to 0.8 %). Among the methods of integrated pest management of AGL methods of mating disruption, thermotherapy, and cover crops are used.


pests; Scaphoideus titanus; phytoplasmas; biological control; integrated pest management; biological pest control


Angelini E., Clair D., Borgo M., Bertaccini A, Boudon- Padieu E. 2001. Flavescence dorée in France and Italy - Occurrence of closely related phytoplasma isolates and their relationships to Palatinate grapevine yellows and an elder yellows phytoplasma. Vitis, 40: 79-86

Angelini E., Squizzato F., Lucchetta G., Borgo M. 2004. Detection of a phytoplasma associated with grapevine Flavescence dorée in Clematis vitalba. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110: 193-201, DOI: 10.1023/B:EJPP.0000015361.95661.37

Bagnoli B., Lucchi A. 2006. Parasitoids of Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff.) in Tuscany. IOBC/wprs Bulletin, 29: 139-142

Barnett D.E. 1976. A revision of the Neartic species of the genus Scaphoideus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Trans American Entomological Society, 102: 485- 593

Battle A, Angeles Martinez M., Laviňa A. 2000. Occurrence, distribution and epidemiology of Grapevine Yellows in Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106: 811-816, DOI: 10.1023/A:1008794905178

Bernard P., Du Fretay G. 1988. Dynamique de population de Scaphoideus titanus, vecteur de la Flavescence dorée dans l’Aude en 1987. Bulletin of Tech, 433: 457-464

Bertin S., Guglielmino C.R., Karam N., Gomulski L.M., Malacrida A.R., Gasperi G. 2007. Diffusion of the Nearctic leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball in Europe: a consequence of human trading activity. Genetica, 131: 275-285, DOI: 10.1007/s10709-006- 9137-y

Bosio G., Gremo F., Alliani N., Battaglia G., Rabino M., Bonifacino G., Tragni R. 2003. Residual performance of insecticides used against Scaphoideus titanus in vines. Inform Agrar., 59: 45-48

Boudon-Padieu E., Maixner M. 2007. Potential effects of climate change on distribution and activity of insect vectors of grapevine pathogens. Proceedings of the international and multi-disciplinary colloquium “Global warming, which potential impacts on the vineyards?”. CHAIRE UNESCO “Culture et Traditions du Vin”, Dijon (France): 8 p.

Carle P. 1965. Relations alimentaires entre Malacocoris chlorizans Pz (Hémipt. Hétérop. “Miridae”) et Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. (Hémipt. Homopt. “Jassidae”) sur les Vitis dans le Sud-Ouest de la France. Rev Zool Agr Appl, 7-9: 72-78

Caudwell A., Larrue J., Boudon-Padieu E., McLean G.D. 1997. Flavescence dorée elimination from dormant wood of grapevines by hot-water treatment. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 3: 21–25, DOI: 10.1111/j.1755- 0238.1997.tb00112.x

Chuche J., Boursault A., Thiéry D. 2011. Preliminary study of the aggregative behaviour of Scaphoideus titanus larvae. IOBC/wprs Bull., 67: 239-244

Chuche J., Thiéry D. 2014. Biology and ecology of the Flavescence dorée vector Scaphoideus titanus: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34: 381-403, DOI: 10.1007/s13593-014-0208-7

Cook S.M., Khan Z.R., Pickett J.A. 2007. The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management. Annual Review of Entomology, 52: 375-400, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ento.52.110405.091407

Decante D., van Helden M. 2006. Population ecology of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) and Scaphoideus titanus (Ball) in Bordeaux vineyards: Influence of migration and landscape. Crop Protection, 25: 696- 704, DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2005.09.016

Delić D., Contaldo N., Paltrinieri S., Lolić B., Urić Z., Hrnčić S., Bertaccini A. 2011. Grapevine yellows in Bosnia and Herzegovina: surveys to identify phytoplasmas in grapevine, weeds and insect vectors. Bulletin of Insectology, 64: 245-246

Dupraz P., Schaub L. 2007. Control of grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma: reinventing hot water! Revue Suisse de Viticulture, Arboriculture et Horticulture, 39(2): 113-115

Eriksson A., Anfora G., Lucchi A., Virant-Doberlet M., Mazzoni V. 2011. Inter-plant vibrational communication in a leafhopper insect. PLoS ONE, 6. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019692

Jermini M. 2011. Übertragungen der Goldgelben Vergilbung nicht nur auf Reben. Die Schweizer Zeitschrift für Obst- und Weinbau, 1: 16

Krnjajić S., Mitrović M., Cvrković T., Jović J., Petrović A., Forte V., Angelini E., Toševski I. 2007. Occurrence and distribution of Scaphoideus titanus in multiple outbreaks of “flavescence dorée” in Serbia. Bulletin of Insectology, 60: 197-198

Linder C., Schaub L., Klötzli-Estermann F., Calonnec A., Duso C., Gessler C., Kassemeyer H.H., Maixner M., Thiéry D., Zahavi T. 2011. Effectiveness of hot water treatments against the eggs of Scaphoideus titanus Bal. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 67: 17-20

Maixner M., Pearson R.C., Boudon-Padieu E., Caudwell A. 1993. Scaphoideus titanus, a possible vector of Grapevine Yellows in New York. Plant Disease, 77: 408-413, DOI: 10.1094/PD-77-0408

Malausa J.C., Nusillard B., Giuge L. 2003. Biological control against Scaphoideus titanus, the vector of flavescence dorée: assessment of research and collection of natural enemies conducted in its North America native area during 2001 and 2002. Phytoma, 565: 24-27

Malausa J.C., Sentenac G. 2011. Parasitoïdes de Scaphoideus titanus. In: Sentenac G (Editor). La faune Auxiliaire des vognobles de France. France Agricole, Paris: 143-146

Marchesini E., Monta L.D. 1994. Observations on natural enemies of Lobesia botrana (Den. &Schiff.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Venetian vineyards. Bull Zool Agrar Bachic, 26: 201-230

Marko V., Blommers L.H.M., Bogya S., Helsen H. 2008. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote wooly apple aphid. Journal of Applied Entomology,132: 26-35, DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2007.01233.x

Matko B., Miklavc J., Mešl M. 2013. Izkušnje z zatiranjem ameriškega škržatka (Scaphoideus titanus Ball) v obdobju 2008-2012 v severovzhodni Sloveniji. Zbornik predavanj in referatov 11. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udeležbo, Bled, 5.-6. marec 2013. Ljubljana, Društvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije: 210-215

Mazzoni V., Prešern J., Lucchi A., Virant-Doberlet M. 2009. Reproductive strategy of the Neartic leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 99: 401-413, DOI: 10.1017/S0007485308006408

Nusillard B., Malausa J.C., Giuge L., Millot P. 2003. Assessment of a two years study of the natural enemy fauna of Scaphoideus titanus Ball in its North American native area. In: Lozzia C. (editor). Integrated protection and production in viticulture. IOBC/wprs Bulletin, 26: 237-240

Rigamonti I.E., Jermini M., Fuog D., Baumgärtner J. 2011. Towards an improved understanding of the dynamics of vineyard-infesting Scaphoideus titanus leafhopper populations for better timing of management activities. Pest Management Science, 67: 1222-1229, DOI : 10.1002/ps.2171

Schvester D., Moutous G., Carle P. 1962. Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. (Homop. Jassidae) cicadelle vectrice de la Flavescence dorée de la vigne. Rev Zool Agr Appl, 10-12: 118-131

Seljak G. 1993. Škodljivi škržati vinske trte; ameriški škržat (Scaphoideus titanus Ball). Sad, revija za sadjarstvo, vinogradništvo in vinarstvo, 4: 9-11

Seljak G. 2008. Distribution of Scaphoideus titanus in Slovenia: its new significance after the first occurrence of grapevine “flavescence dorée”. Bulletin of Insectology, 61:201-202

Stadler B., Dixon A.F.G. 2005. Ecology and evolution of aphid-ant interactions. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 36: 345-372, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.091704.175531

Thiéry D., Xuéreb A., Villemant C., Sentenac G., Delbac L., Kuntzman P. 2001. The parasites of grape tortricids: noticed on several species present in 3 French vine regions. IOBC/wprs Bulletin, 24: 135-141

Tubajika K.M., Civerolo E.L., Puterka G.J., Hashim J.M., Luvisi D.A. 2007. The effects of kaolin, harpin, and imidacloprid on development of Pierce’s disease in grape. Crop Protection, 26: 92- 99, DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2006.04.006

Vidano C. 1966. Scoperta della ecologia ampelofila del cicadellidae Scaphoideus littoralis Ball nella regione neartica originaria. Annali, Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie della Università degli Studi di Torino, 3: 297-302

Zahavi T., Peles S., Harari A.R., Soroker V., Sharon R. 2007. Push and pull strategy to reduce Hyalesthes obsoletus population in vineyards by Vitex agnus castus as trap plant. Bulletin of Insectology, 60: 297-298

Žežlina I., Škvarč A., Bohinc T., Trdan S. 2013. Testing the efficacy of single application of five insecticides against Scaphoideus titanus on common grapevines. International Journal of Pest Management, 59: 1-9, DOI: 10.1080/09670874.2012.735378

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2015.105.2.16


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Acta agriculturae Slovenica


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941