Cow cleanliness in dairy herds with tie stall systems in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Miljan ERBEZ, Božo VAŽIĆ, Biljana ROGIĆ, Knut Egil BØE, Lars Erik RUUD


This study involved 70 tie stall dairy herds from all over Bosnia and Herzegovina. In each herd, trained observers scored the cleanliness (score 1 = clean to score 4 = very dirty) of 5 randomly chosen cows, total 350 cows, on 5 different body parts (rear, thigh, leg, udder and belly). Total cleanliness score was calculated by adding together the scores for the different body parts. The observers also recorded data on stall design, flooring and use of bedding materials. The proportion of cows scored as dirty or very dirty (score 3 and 4) was 33.4 %, 50.8 %, 55.1 %, 16.0 % and 18.6 % for the legs, thighs, rear, udder and belly respectively. 57.4 % of the cows got a total cleanliness score > 10. The mean total cleanliness score on herd level varied from 5.2 to 18.8. Tests of each stall design variable showed that tying system (p < 0.05), presence of stall dividers (p < 0.05) and manure system (p < 0.05) had a significant effect on total cow cleanliness, the use of bedding material (p > 0.15) and floor type (p > 0.15) had smaller effect. However, only the presence of stall dividers showed significant association to total cleanliness score in the full statistical model (p < 0.05).


cattle; dairy cows; housing; tie stalls; cleanliness; Bosnia and Herzegovina

Full Text:



Addinsoft. (2016). Addinsoft student package XLSTAT-Base solution. Paris, France: Addinsoft.

Agriculture Canada. (1981). Tie-stall dairy cattle housing. Publ. 1714.

Bergsten, C., & Pettersson, B. (1992). The cleanliness of cows tied in stalls and the health of their hooves as influenced by the use of electric trainers. Prev Vet. Med., 13, 229–238.

DeVries, T. J., Arnoude, M. G., Barkema, H. W., Leslie, K. E., & von Keyserlingk, M. A. G. (2012). Associations of Dairy cow behaviour, barn hygiene, cow hygiene and risk of elevated somatic cell count. J. Dairy Sci., 95, 5730–5739.

DG SANTE. (2017). Overview report Welfare of Cattle on Dairy Farms. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

EFSA. (2009). Scientific report on the effects of farming systems on dairy cow welfare and disease. Report of the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare. Annex to the EFSA Journal, 1143, 1–284.

FAO, Regional office for Europe and Central Asia. (2012). The meat and dairy sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Preparation of IPART sector analyses in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Contract number 2010/256–560). Rome, Italy: FAO.

Gjestang, K. E. (1980). Driftsfunksjonelle undersøkelser av båsinnredning for mjølkeku [Investigations of the function of stalls for dairy cows] (Report No. 165). Ås, Norway: Institutt for bygningsteknikk, Norges landbrukshøgskole [Department of Agricultural Structures, Agricultural University of Norway].

Glavić, M., Zenunović, A., & Budiša, A. (2017). The Production, Purchase and Processing of Milk in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Agro-knowledge Journal, 18(3), 187–198.

Hauge, S. J., Kielland, C., Ringdal, G., Skjerve, E., & Nafstad, O. (2012). Factors associated with cattle cleanliness on Norwegian dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci., 95, 2485–2496.

Herlin, A. H., Magnusson, M., & Michanek, P. (1994). Faecal contamination of the lying area for dairy cows in different housing systems. Swedish J. Agric. Res., 24, 171–176.

Hultgren, J., & Bergsten, C. (2001). Effects of a rubber-slatted flooring system on cleanliness and foot health in tied dairy cows. Prev. Vet. Med., 52, 75–89.

Jovović, V., Rogić, B., Važić, B., Bøe, K. E., Ruud, L. E., & Erbez, M. (2014). Examination of certain parameters affecting dairy cows’ welfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In D. Kovačević (Ed.) Book of proceedings: Fifth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium „Agrosym 2014“ (pp. 854–858). Retrieved from

LMD (Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food). (2004). Forskrift om hold av storfe [Regulations on keeping cattle]. FOR-2004-04-22-665.

Neja, W., Bogucki, M., Jankowska, M., & Sawa, A. (2016). Effect of cow cleanliness in different housing systems on somatic cell count in milk. Acta Vet. Brno., 85, 55–61.

Nygaard, A. (1979). Omgivelsesstudier i hus for mjølkeproduksjon [Environmental studies in houses for milk production]. In Meldinger fra Norges Landbrukshøgskole, 58(19) (pp 64). Ås, Norway: NLH.

Official Gazzette of BiH. (2009). Zakon o zaštiti i dobrobiti životinja [The law on animal welfare and protection]. No. 25/09.

Official Gazzette of RS (Republic of Srpska), Bosnia and Herzegovina. (2016). Program uzgoja goveda u republici Srpskoj za period 2016–2021. godine [Program of cattle breeding in Republic of Srpska for period 2016–2012]. No. 72/16.

Popescu, S., Borda C., Diugan, E. A., Spinu, M., Groza, I. S., & Sandru, C. D. (2013). Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 55, 43–54.

Reneau, J. K., Seykora, A. J., Heins, B. J., Endres, M. I., Farnsworth, R. J., & Bey, R. F. (2005). Association between hygiene scores and somatic cell scores in dairy cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 227, 1297–1301.

Rogić, B., Vazić, B., Jovanović, S., Stamenković, R. M., Savić, M., & Ravić, I. (2011). Investigations of variability of morphometric characteristics in busa and gatacko cattle in order to preserve autochthonous genome. Vet. Glasnik, 65(1–2), 51–69.

Ruud, L. E, Bøe, K. E., & Østerås, O. (2010). Risk factors for dirty dairy cows in Norwegian freestall systems. J. Dairy Sci., 93, 5216–5224.

Ruud, L. E, Stokke, T., Bøe, K. E., Hettasch, T., & Skjølberg, P. O. (2015). Hus for storfe – Norske anbefalinger [Cattle housing – Norwegian recommendations]. Ås, Norway: Tine.

Schreiner, D. A., & Ruegg, P. L. (2003). Relationship between udder and leg hygiene scores and subclinical mastitis. J. Dairy Sci., 86, 3460–3465.

Simensen, E., Østerås, O., Bøe, K. E., Kielland, C., Ruud, L. E., & Næss, G. (2010). Housing system and herd size interactions in Norwegian dairy herds; associations with performance and disease incidence. Acta Vet. Scand., 52, 1–9.

Veissier, I, Capdeville, J., & Delval, E. (2004). Cubicle housing systems for cattle: comfort of dairy cows depends on cubicle adjustment. J. Anim. Sci. 82, 3321–3337.

Zurbrigg, K., Kelton, D., Anderson, N., & Millman, S. (2005). Tie-stall design and its relationship to lameness, injury, and cleanliness on 317 Ontario dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci., 88, 3201–3210.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Miljan ERBEZ, Božo VAŽIĆ, Biljana ROGIĆ, Knut Egil BØE, Lars Erik RUUD

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941