Response of leaf area and dry matter of crop, weeds and cover crops to competition and fertilizer resources

Fahimeh DADASHI, Faezeh ZAEFARIAN, Rahmat ABBASI, Mohammad Ali BAHMANYAR, Mohammad REZVANI


Plasticity of plants to allocate leaf area and dry matter to upper layer of canopy play important role in canopy architecture and competition. In order to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of corn (Zea mays L.), cover crops and weeds canopy in different fertilizer condition and competition, a randomized complete block design experiment with 8 treatments and 3 replicates was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University in 2012. Treatments were included corn with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as cover crop without fertilizer application, corn with soybean as cover crop with chemical fertilizer application, corn with soybean as cover crop with compost fertilizer application, corn with wheat (Triticum aesitivum L.) as cover crop without fertilizer application, corn with wheat as cover crop with chemical fertilizer application, corn with wheat as cover crop with compost fertilizer application and corn monoculture both in weedy and weed free conditions. The results showed that weed infestation reduced total leaf area and dry matter of corn. Corn distributed more leaf area and dry mater of canopy to the upper layer in weedy conditions. Between cover crops, soybeans allocated corn leaf area and dry mater to the higher layers of canopy than wheat. Also, soybean reduced leaf area and dry mater production of weeds more than wheat. Soybean as cover crop with the use of compost treatment was more efficient in reducing of weed biomass and corn yield production.


leaf area; canopy; dry matter content; zea mays; glycine max; triticum aestivum; weeds; biomass; cover plants; composts; fertilizer application

Full Text:



Agha-Alikhani, M., Zaefarian, F., Zand, E., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Rezvani, M., 2009. Corn and soybean intercropping canopy structure as affected by competition from Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retrofelxus L.) and Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.). Iranian J Weed Sci. 5(2): 39-53.

Ahmadvand, G., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A. 2006.Effect of light competition and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy structure of wheat and wild oat. (In Persian with English Abstract).Journal of Agricultural Science and Environ Resource. 12(6): 100-112.

Altentorbert, H., Reeves, D., Mulvancy, R. 1996. Winter legume cover crop benefits of corn: Rotation us fixed Nitrogen effects. Agron J. 88: 527-535, DOI: 10.2134/agronj1996.00021962008800040005x.

Aminpanah, H., Sorooshzadeh, A., Zand, E., Momeni, A. 2009. Investigation of light extinction coefficient and canopy structure of more and less competitiveness of Rice cultivars (Oryza sativa) against Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli ). Electronic J Crop Production. 2(3): 69-84.

Barnes, J.P., Putnam, A.R. 1983. Rye residues contribute to weed suppression in no-till cropping systems. J Chem Ecol. 9: 1045-1057, DOI: 10.1007/BF00982210.

Brennan, E.B., Smith, R.F. 2005. Winter cover crop growth and weed suppression on the central coast of California. Weed Tech. 19: 1017-1024, DOI: 10.1614/WT-04-246R1.1.

Calegari, A., Ralisch, R., Guimaraes, M.F. 2005. The effects of winter cover crops and no-tillage on soil chemical; properties and maize yield in Brazil. 3 rd world congress on conservation Agriculture. Naironi, Kenya.

Compigla, E., Mancinlli, R., Radicetli, E.,Caparali, F. 2010. Effect of cover crops and mulches on weed control and nitrogen fertilization. Crop Protection. 29: 354-363, DOI: 10.1016/j. cropro.2009.12.001.

Czaper, G., Simmons, W., Bullock, D. 2002. Delayed control of a hairy vetch cover crop in irrigated corn production . Crop Protection. 27(6): 507-570, DOI: 10.1016/S0261-2194(01)00141-7.

Faget, M., Liedgons, Mfeil, B ., Stamp, P., Herrera, J.M. 2012. Root growth of maize in an Italian ryegrass living mulch studied with a non-destructive method. Europ J Agron. 36: 7-8, DOI: 10.1016/j.eja.2011.08.002.

Haj-seyedhadi, M.R., Normohammadi, G., Nasirimahalati, M., Rahimian, H., Zand, S. 2007. Vertical distribution of dry matter and leaf area of potato in competition with weeds. Agri New Findings. 4: 293-307.

Hollander, N.G., Bastiaans,L., Kropff, M.J. 2007.Clover as a cover crop for weed suppression in an intercropping design I. Characteristics of several clover species. Europ J Agron. 26: 92–103, DOI: 10.1016/j.eja.2006.08.011.

Jedrszczyk, E., Poniedziałek, M. 2007. Impact of the living mulch on plant growth and selected features of sweet corn yield. Folia Horticulture. Ann. 19(1): 3-13.

Kumar V, Mills DJ, Anderson JD, Matto AK. 2004. An alternative agriculture system is defined by a distinct expression profile of select gene transcripts and proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101: 10535-10540, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0403496101.

Ngouajioa, M., McGiffen, M.E., Hutchinson, C.M. 2003. Effect of cover crop and management system on weed populations in lettuce. Crop Protection. 22: 57–64, DOI: 10.1016/S0261-2194(02)00111-4.

Saadatian, B., Ahmadvand, G., Soleymani, F. 2011. Study of canopy structure and growth characters role of two wheat cultivars in competition, on economic threshold and yield of rye and wild mustard. Iranian J Field Crop Res. 9(3): 494-504.

Samarajeewa, K.B.D.P., Horiuchi, T., Oba, S. 2006. Finger millet (Eleucine corocana L. Gaertn.) as a cover crop on weed control, growth and yield of soybean under different tillage systems. Soil & Tillage Res. 90: 93– 99, DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2005.08.018.

Rezvani, M., Zaefarian, F., Joveini, M. 2010. Response of canopy structure of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars to weed competition. (In Persian with English Abstract). Iranian J. Weed Sci. 6 (2): 91-105.

Rezvani, M., Zaefarian, F. , Joveini, M. 2013. Weed suppression ability of six soybean [Glycine max (L.) MERR.] varieties under natural weed development conditions. Acta Agronomica Hungarica. 61: 43–53, DOI: 10.1556/AAgr.61.2013.1.5.

Safahani-Langerodi, A., Aynehband, A., Zand, E., Nour- Mohammadi, G., Baghestani, M.A., Kamkar, B. 2008. Evaluation of competitive ability in some canola (Brassica napus) cultivars with wild mustard (Sinapisarvensis) and relationship with canopy structure. J Agri Sci Natural Resource. 15(2): 86-98.

Sarrantonio, M., Gallandt, E.R. 2003. The role of cover crops in North American cropping systems. J Crop Production. 8: 53-73, DOI: 10.1300/J144v08n01_04.

Uchino, H., Iwama, K., Jits uyama, Y., Ichiyama, K., Sugiura, E., Yudate, T., Nakamura, S., Gopal, J. 2012. Effect of inter-seeding cover crops and fertilization on weed suppression organic and rotational cropping system, 1. Stability of weed suppression over years and main crops of potato, maize and soybean. Field Crop Res. 127: 9-16, DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2011.10.007.

Uchino, H., Iwama, K., Ji tsuyama, Y., Yudate, T., Nakamura, S. 2009. Yield losses of soybean and maize by competition with inter-seeded cover crops and weeds in organic-based cropping systems. Field Crop Res. 113: 342-351, DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2009.06.013.

Vazin, F., Madani, A., Hassanzadeh, M. 2010. Modeling light interception and distribution in mixed canopy of Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) in competition with Corn (Zea mays). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 38(3): 128-134



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Acta agriculturae Slovenica


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941