Physiological and biochemical responses of selected cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) accessions to iron toxicity

Josiah ESEOGHENE IFIE, Sandra OMON IFIE-ETUMAH, Beckley IKHAJIAGBE

Abstract


This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron toxicity in cowpea using physiological and biochemical responses of selected accessions. Fifteen accessions of cowpea were exposed to two treatments of iron using FeSO4 solution (100 mg l-1 and 400 mg l-1) and distilled water at pH 6.2 as control. The results showed that there was a general reduction in germination morphology; germination percentage among the 400 mg l-1 Fe-treated accessions. Seed mortality rates were significantly higher among the 400 mg l-1Fe-treated accessions (> 35 %). Water imbibition capacity and relative mass gained were higher for Fe-treated accessions. Furthermore, significant increase in the total sugar and percentage utilization of sugars was accompanied by an insignificant decrease in chlorophyll a, a significant decrease in chlorophyll b contents and the persistence of foliar chlorosis, among the 400 mg l-1 Fe-treated accessions. MDA levels were significantly increased while proline remained unchanged, mean SOD activity was insignificantly increased, whereas Cat decreased among the 400 mg l-1 Fe-treated accessions. Documentation of these observable changes in physiological and biochemical parameters will be useful in understanding the impact of elevated iron concentrations on the cultivation of cowpea accessions in soils associated with ferruginous ultisols.


Keywords


ferruginous ultisol; Vigna unguiculata; cowpea accessions; iron toxicity; plant antioxidants; cowpea tolerance; physiological response; biochemical response

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdel-Haleem, A. H. E. (2015). Seed germination percentage and early seedling establishment of five (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) genotypes under salt stress. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 5(2), 22-32.

Ahenkora, K., AduDapaah, H. K., & Agyemang, A. (1998). Selected nutritional components and sensory attributes of cowpea (V. unguiculata (L.) Walp.) leaves. Plant Foods Human Nutrition, 52, 221–229. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008019113245

Ahmad, M. J., Akhtar, Z. A., & Zahir J. A. (2012). Effect of cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44(5), 1569-1574.

Araújo, A.S. Ferreira de, L., Luciano, M., Melo, W., José de, S. Vilma, M., & Araujo, F. F. (2016). Soil properties and cowpea yield after six years of consecutive amendment of composted tannery sludge. Acta Scientiarum Agronomy, 38(3), 407-413. https://doi.org/10.4025/actasciagron.v38i3.28281

Arleta, M., Aneta, P., Anna, M., Anetta, H., Danuta, B., & Barbara, T. (2012). Antioxidative defense system in Pisum sativum roots exposed to heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn). Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 21(6), 1721-1730.

Arnon, D.I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast Polyphenol Oxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.24.1.1

Bates, L., Waldren, R.P., & Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205-207. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00018060

Batty, L.C., &Younger, P.L. (2003). Effects of External Iron Concentration upon Seedling Growth and Uptake of Fe and Phosphate by the Common Reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex.Steudel). Annals of Botany, 92, 801-806. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcg205

Beauchamp, C., & Fridovich, I. (1971). Superoxide dismutase: Improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry, 44, 276-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(71)90370-8

Bhagyashree, K.,Satyendra, N., & Prasad, S.M. (2016). Effect of cadmium doses on seed germination and morphology parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The Ecoscan, 10(3&4), 491-494.

Bhattacharjee, S. (2008). Triadimefon pretreatment protects newly assembled membrane system and causes up-regulation of stress proteins in salinity stressed Amaranthus lividus L. during early germination. Journal of Environmental Biology, 29, 805-810.

Choudhary, M., Jetley, U.K., Khan, M.A, Zutshi, S., & Fatma, T. (2007). Effect of heavy metal stress on proline, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase activity in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis-S5. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 66, 204-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2006.02.002

Clinfton, P.M. (2011). Protein and coronary heart disease: the role of different protein sources. Current Atherosclerosis Report, 13(6), 493-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-011-0208-x

Dufey, I., Hie, M.P., Hakizimana, P., Draye, X., Lutts, S., Kone, B., Drame, K.N., Konate, K.A., Sie, M., & Bertin, P. (2012). Multienvironment QTL mapping and consistency across environments of resistance mechanisms to ferrous iron toxicity in rice. Crop Science, 52, 539–550. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2009.09.0544

Erja, T., Eava-Kaisa, H., Kari, T., & Kari, L. (2001). Comparison of two methods used to analyse lipid peroxidation from Vaccinium myrtillus (L.) during snow removal, reacclimation and cold acclimation Journal of Experimental Botany, 52(365), 2375–2380. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/52.365.2375

Esma, H. A., & Gulnur, A. (2016). Determination of SOD, POD, PPO and CAT Enzyme Activities in Rumex obtusifolius L. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 11(3), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/ARRB/2016/29809

Ezhilvannan, D., Sharavanan, P.S., & Vijayaragavan, M. (2011). Changes in growth, sugar and starch contents in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants under nickel toxicity. Current Botany, 2(8), 24-26.

Gao, Y., Mao, L., & Zhou P. (2010). Antioxidative defense system differences among four plants under combined Pb and Cd stress. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 18(4), 836-842. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1011.2010.00836

Health, R.L., & Packer, L. (1968). Photoperoxidation in an isolated chloroplast I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives in Biochemistry and Biophysics, 125, 189-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(68)90654-1

IKhajiagbe, B., & Mgbeze, G.C. (2010).Growth and yield responses of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex. A Rich) Harms (African yam bean) to potassium application. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(25), 3769-3774.

Ikhile, C.I. (2016). Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Benin Region, Edo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Geosciences, 7, 144-157. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2016.72012

Imasuen, O.I., & Onyeobi, T.U.S. (2013). Chemical compositions of soils in parts of Edo State, Southwest Nigeria and their relationship to soil productivity. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 17(3), 379-386. https://doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v17i3.6

Krishnaveni, M., Kumar, J. S., & Sharvanan, P.S. (2015). Influence of lead on biochemicals and proline contents of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. International Journal of Plant Science, 10(2), 142-151. https://doi.org/10.15740/HAS/IJPS/10.2/142-151

Luck, H. (1974). Methods in enzymatic analysis. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Malar, S., Shivendra ,V. S., Favas, J.C.P., & Perumal, V. (2016). Lead heavy metal toxicity induced changes on growth and antioxidative enzymes level in water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)). Botanical Studies, 55, 54. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40529-014-0054-6

Marin, A., Santos, D.M.M., Banzatto, D.A., & Codognotto, L.M. (2006). Influência da disponibilidade hídrica e acidez do solo nos teores de prolina livre de guandu. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 41, 355-358. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2006000200023

Maxwell, K., & Johnson, G.N. (2000). Chlorophyll fluorescence - A practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 659-668. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.345.659

Mitra, G. N., Sahu, S. K., & Nayak, R. K. (2009). Ameliorating effects of potassium on iron toxicity in soils of Orissa. Presentation at the IPI-OUAT-IPNI International Symposium, 5-7 November 2009, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.

Nabil, M., & Coudret, A. (1995). Effects of sodium chloride on growth, tissue elasticity and solute adjustment in two Acacia nilotica subspecies. Physiologia Plantarum, 93(2), 217-224. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1995.tb02220.x

Nelson, N. (1944). A photometric adaptation of the Somogyis method for the determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 3, 426-428.

Olasoji, J.O., Olosunde, A.A., & Okoh, J. O. (2013). Physiological Quality of Cowpea Seeds Produced in Southwestern Nigeria. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(6), 469-473. https://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2013.3.10031279

Onyango, D.A., Fredrickson, E., Mathew, M. D., Abdelbagi, M. I., & Khady, N. D. (2019) Mechanistic understanding of iron toxicity tolerance in contrasting rice varieties from Africa: 1. Morpho-physiological and biochemical responses. Functional Plant Biology, 46, 93–105. https://doi.org/10.1071/FP18129

Prasad, A.G.D., Rahimpouran, S., & Komala H. P. (2014). Ecotoxicological effects of iron on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seedlings. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 2(5), 118-123

Priti, B., Ashish, K.C., & Prasad, P. (2009). Effect of Enhanced Lead and Cadmium in soil on Physiological and Biochemical attributes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Nature and Science, 7(8), 63–75.

Ratering, S., & Schnell, S. (2000). Localization of iron-reducing activity in paddy soil by profile studies. Biochemistry, 48, 341-365. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006252315427

Sadeghi, H., Khazaei, F., Yari, L., & Sheidaei, S. (2011). Effect of seed osmo-priming on seed germination behavior and vigor of soybean (Glycine max L.). ARPN Journal Agricultural and Biological Science, 6, 39-42.

Sadeghipour, H., Abdolzadeh, A., & Mehrabanjoubani, P. (2008). Iron Toxicity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.), under Different Potassium Nutrition. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2008.251.259

Sankar, G. K., & Selvaraju, M. (2015). Growth and boichemical contents of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) on the application of zinc. World Scientific News, 16, 73-83.

Singh, G., Agnihotri, R., Reshma, R.S., & Ahmad, M. (2012). Effect of lead and nickel toxicity on chlorophyll and proline content of Urd (Vigna mungo L.) seedlings. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 4, 136-141. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB12.005

Spence, J.D., Jenkins, D.J., & Davignon, J. (2010). Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 26, e336-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0828-282X(10)70456-6

Sun, C., Ma, L., & Sheng, L. (2009).Soil naphthaline pollution stress on corn (Zea mays L.) seedling physiological effect. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 28(3), 443-448.

Suresh, S. (2005). Characteristics of soils prone to iron toxicity and management - a review. Agricultural Reviews, 26(1), 50 – 58.

Wada, B.Y., & Abubakar, B.Y. (2013). Germination studies in some varieties of Vigna unguiculata L.Walp. (Cowpea) from Northern Nigeria. Parkistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(20), 1220-1222. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2013.1220.1222

Yamauchi, M., & Peng, X. X. (1993). Ethylene production in rice bronzing leaves induced by ferrous iron. Plant Soil, 149, 227-234. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00016613




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2020.115.1.969

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 JOSIAH ESEOGHENE IFIE, IFIE-ETUMAH OMON SANDRA, BECKLEY IKHAJIAGBE

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License.

                            


ISSN 1581-9175     eISSN 1854-1941