Evaluation of yield, chemical composition and yield of essential oil of four cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) affected by different levels of nitrogen

Faraj MOAYEDI, Sajad KORDI, Ali Ashraf MEHRABI

Abstract


A field experiment was conducted to evaluate yield and some qualitative characteristics of four cultivars of sweet basil treated with different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. The experiments were located on the Agricultural Research Station of Khorramabad, Iran, during the 2016-2017 growing season. Treatments were arranged in factorial split-plot-in time in randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental treatments were four cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Italian Large Leaf’, O. basilicum ‘Mobarakeh’, O. basilicum ‘Cinnamon’ and O. basilicum ‘Thai’), three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 urea) and three harvests. The highest total dry mass (3482.4 kg ha-1) was related to ‘Italian Large Leaf’ with the application of 200 kg ha-1 urea at the second harvest. The maximum (26.79 kg ha-1) essential oil yield belonged to 100 kg ha-1 urea. The highest concentrations of main constituents of essential oil, except methyl chavicol, 1,8-cineole and methyl cinnamate were obtained by control (without nitrogen fertilizer). Italian Large Leaf cultivar and application of 100 kg ha-1 urea are recommended to access an acceptable agricultural yield and essential oil yield in sweet basil under the environmental condition similar to Khorramabad


Keywords


basil; dry mass; essential oil; main constituents of essential oil; urea

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams, R. P. (2007). Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream.

Al–Maskri, A. Y., Hanif, M. A., Al–Maskari, M. Y., Abraham, A. S., Al–Sabahi, J. N., Al–Mantheri, O. (2011). Essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (Omani Basil): a desert crop. Natural Product Communications, 6(10), 1487-1490. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1100601020

Anonymous. (1996). European Pharmacopoeia. Council of Europe press, Strasbourg.

Barbieri, G., Vallone, S., Orsini, F., Paradiso, R., De Pascale, S., Negre-Zakharov, F., Maggio, A. (2012). Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Plant Physiology, 169, 1737-1746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2012.07.001

Beatović, D., Krstić-Milošević, D., Trifunović, S., Šiljegović, J., Glamočlija, J., Ristić, M., Jelačić, S. (2015). Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of twelve Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars grown in Serbia. Records of Natural Products, 9, 62-75.

Biesiada, A., & Kuś, A. (2010). The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation on yielding and nutritional status of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 9(2), 3-12.

Bilal, A., Jahan, N., Ahmed, A., Bilal, S. N., Habib, S., Hajra, S. (2012). Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Ocimum basilicum Linn–a review. International Journal of Current Research and Review, 4(23), 73-83.

Borloveanu, M. (2014). Leacuri mănăstiresti. Terapii pentru trup si suflet. Lumea Credintei, Bucuresti.

Caliskan, S., Ozkaya, I., Caliskan, M. E., Arslan, M. (2008). The effects of nitrogen and iron fertilization on growth, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of soybean in Mediterranean-type soil. Field Crops Research, 108(2), 126-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2008.04.005

Carneiro, N. S., Alves, C. C. F., Alves, J. M., Egea, M. B., Martins, C. H. G., Silva, T. S., Bretanha, L. C., Balleste, M. P., Micke, G. A., Silveira, E. V., Miranda, M. L. D. (2017). Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzchiana Berg (Myrtaceae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 89(3), 1907-1915. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201720160652

Ekren, S., Sönmez, C., Özcakal, E., Kurttas, Y. S. K., Bayram, E., Gürgülü, H. (2012). The effect of different irrigation water levels on yield and quality characteristics of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Agricultural Water Management, 109, 155-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2012.03.004

Jahan, M., Amiri, M. B., Tahami, M. K., Bajouri, S. (2012). The effect of biofertilizers and winter cover crops on essential oil production and some agroecological characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum L) in an organic cropping system. In 13th Congress of the International Society for Ethnopharmacology.

Kandil, M. A. M., Khatab, M. E., Ahmed, S. S., Schnug, E. (2009). Herbal and essential oil yield of Genovese basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown with mineral and organic fertilizer sources in Egypt. Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 61(12), 443-449.

Kordi, S. (2017). Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of forage corn (Zea mays L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under nitrogen fertilizers (biological, chemical and integrated) in additive intercropping. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

Krishnaiah, D., Devi, T., Bono, A., Sarbatly, R. (2009). Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(2), 67-72.

Lawlor, D. W. (2002). Carbon and nitrogen assimilation in relation to yield: mechanisms are the key to understanding production systems. Journal of experimental Botany, 53, 773-787. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/53.370.773

Li, H., Ge, Y., Luo, Z., Zhou, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, J., Fu, Q. (2017). Evaluation of the chemical composition, antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of distillate and residue fractions of sweet basil essential oil. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(7), 1882-1890. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2620-x

Nurzyńska-Wierdak, R., Borowski, B., Dzida, K., Zawiślak, G., Kowalski, R. (2013). Essential oil composition of sweet basil cultivars as affected by nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 37, 427-436. https://doi.org/10.3906/tar-1203-43

Padalia, R. C., Verma, R. S., Chauhan, A., Goswami, P., Chanotiya, C. S., Saroj, A., Samad, A., Khaliq, A. (2014). Compositional variability and antifungal potentials of Ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum. Natural Product Communications, 9(10), 1507-1510. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1400901026

Ram, M., Ram, D., Prasad, A., Naqvi, A., Kumar, S. (1998). Productivity of late transplanted mint (Mentha arvensis) with summer legume inter crops in a sub-tropical environment. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 20, 1028-1031.

Roman, G.V. (2012). Fitotehnie. Plante Tehnice, Medicinale si Aromatice. Editura Universitară, Bucuresti.

Sifola, M. I., & Barbieri, G. (2006). Growth, yield and essential oil content of three cultivars of basil grown under different levels of nitrogen in the field. Scientia Horticulturae, 108(4), 408-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.02.002

Simon, J. E., Morales, M. R., Phippen, W. B., Vieira, R. F., Hao, Z. (1999). Basil: a source of aroma compounds and a popular culinary and ornamental herb. Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses, 499-505.

Srivastava, S., Cahill, D. M., Conlan, X.A., Adholeya, A. (2014). A novel in vitro whole plant system for analysis of polyphenolics and their antioxidant potential in cultivars of Ocimum basilicum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(41), 10064-10075. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf502709e

Street, R. (2012). Heavy metals in medicinal plant products-An African perspective. South African Journal of Botany, 82, 67-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2012.07.013

Tahami Zarandi, M. K., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Jahan, M. (2010). Comparison the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential oil percentage of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agroecology, 2(1), 70-82.

Werner, D., & Newton, W. E. (2005). Nitrogen fixation in agriculture, forestry, ecology and environment. Springer, Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3544-6

Yassen, M., Ram, P., Anju, Y., Singh, K. (2003). Response of Indian basil (Ocimum basilicum) to irrigation and nitrogen schedule in Central Uttar Pradesh. Annals of Plant Physiology, 17(2), 177-181.

Zheljazkov, V. I., Cantrell, C. L., Ebelhar, M. W., Rowe, D. E., Coker, C. (2008). Productivity, oil content and oil composition of sweet basil as a function of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization. HortScience, 43(5), 1415-1422. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.5.1415




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2020.115.1.1058

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Faraj moayedi, sajad kordi, Ali Ashraf Mehrabi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License.

                            


ISSN 1581-9175     eISSN 1854-1941