Changes of antioxidant enzymes in ‘Thomson-Navel’ orange during induction of resistance to green mold (Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc.) as provoked by jasmonic acid, epibrassinolide, chitosan and cinnamon essential oil

Behrooz ALIJOO, Vahid ABDOSSI, Vahid ZARRINNIA, Sepideh KALATEH JARI, Mohamad CHAMANI

Abstract



Pathogenic agents are one of the causes of post-harvest citrus fruit loss. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post-harvest treatments with jasmonic acid (ja), epibrassinolide (epiBL), chitosan (chi) and cinnamon essential oil (cin) on induction of resistance to the citrus green mold (Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc.) and reduction of fungal growth by improving the activity of some antioxidant enzymes in ‘Thomson-Navel’orange. For this purpose, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Treatments included positive and negative control, jasmonic acid (5, 10, 20 and 40 μl l-1), epibrassinolide (1, 4, 7 and 10 μmol l-1), chitosan (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 g l-1) and cinnamon essential oil (250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm). Characteristics such as lesion diameter and activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, APX, CAT and POD were evaluated for a period of 96 hours with 24 hour intervals. The results indicated that all treatments significantly decreased the lesion diameter of fruits. Consequently, chitosan treatments (7.5 and 10 g l-1) and cinnamon essential oil (750 and 1000 ppm) inhibited the spread of fungal infection better than other treatments, and therefore reduced the growth of green mold. Also, different concentrations of (ja) and (chi) increased the activity of SOD and APX enzymes, while different concentrations of (epiBR) and (cin) stimulated the activity of POD and CAT enzymes. Finally, the present study proposes using natural products as an appropriate alternative to fungicides in order to reduce the citrus green mold rot


Keywords


peroxidase; catalase; superoxide dismutase; ascorbate peroxidase; citrus green mold; inoculation; lesion diameter

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdolahi, A., Hassani, A., Ghosta, Y., Javadi, T.and Meshkatalsadat, M. (2010). Essential oils as control agents of postaharvest Alternaria and Penicillium rots on tomato fruits, Journal of Food Safety, 30, 341-352. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4565.2009.00211.x

Aebi, H. E. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105, 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(84)05016-3

Asghari, M., Hasanlooe, A.R. (2015). Interaction effects of salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate on total antioxidant content, catalase and peroxidase enzymes activity in 'Sabrosa' strawberry fruit during storage. ScientiaHorticulturae, 197, 490-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.10.009

Asghari, M., Hasanlooe, A.R. (2016). Methyl jasmonate effectively enhanced some defense enzymes activity and Total Antioxidant content in harvested "Sabrosa" strawberry fruit. Food science & nutrition, 4(3), 377-383. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.300

Badawy, M.E.I., Rabea, E.I. (2009). Potential of the biopolymer chitosan with different molecular weights to control postharvest gray mold of tomato fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 51(1), 110-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2008.05.018

Bautista-Banos, S., Hernandez-Lauzardo, A.N., Velazquez-del Valle, M. G., Hernandez-Lopez, M., AitBarka, E., Bosquez-Molina, E. and Wilson, C. L. (2006). Chitosan as Potential Natural Compounds to Control Pre and Postharvest Diseases of Horticultural Commodities. Crop Protection, 25: 108-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2005.03.010

Bendahou, M., Muselli, A., Grignon-Dubois, M., Benyoucef, M., Desjobert, J.M., Bernardini, A.F. (2008). Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum glandulosum Desf. essential oil and extract obtained by microwave extraction: Comparison with hydro distillation. Food Chemistry, 106(1), 132-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.050

Champa, W.A.H., Gill1, MIS., Mahajan, BVC., Aror, NK., BediS. (2015). Brassinosteroids improve quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera 'Flame Seedless'. Tropical Agricultrucal Research, 26(2):368 - 379. https://doi.org/10.4038/tar.v26i2.8099

Chien, P.J., Sheu, F., Lin, H.R. (2007). Coating citrus ('Murcott Tangor') fruit with low molecular weight chitosan increases postharvest quality and shelf life. Food chemistry, 100(3), 1160-1164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.068

Coll, Y., Coll, F., Amorós, A., Pujol, M. (2015). Brassinosteroids roles and applications: an up-date.Biologia, 70(6):726-732 doi: 10.1515/biolog-2015-0085. https://doi.org/10.1515/biolog-2015-0085

Ding, C.K., Wang, C.Y., Gross, K.C., Kenneth, C.S., David, L. (2002). Jasmonate and salicylate induce the expression of pathogenesis-related-protein genes and increase resistance to chilling injury in tomato fruit. Planta 214, 895-901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-001-0698-9

Droby, S., Wisniewski, M., Macarisin, D. and Wilson, C. (2009). Twenty years of postharvest biocontrol research: is it time for a new paradigm. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 52,137e145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2008.11.009

El guilli, M., Hamza, A., Clement, C., Ibriz, M., Aitbarak, E. (2016). Effectiveness of postharvest treatment with chitosan to control citrus green mold. Agriculture, 6(2), 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture6020012

FAO/WHO (2019). http://www.fao.org/faostat.

Ge, Y.H., Li, C.Y., Tang, R.X., Sun, R.H., Li, J.R. (2015). Effects of postharvest brassinolide dipping on quality parameters and antioxidant activity in peach fruit. In III International Symposium on Postharvest Pathology, Using Science to Increase Food Availability, 1144.377-384. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1144.56

Giannopolitis, S. (1977). Superoxide dismutase. I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiology, 59, 309-314. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.59.2.309

González-Aguilar, G., Buta, J., Wang, C. (2003). Methyl jasmonate and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of papaya 'Sunrise'. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 28, 361-370. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00200-4

Guo, J., Fang, W., Lu, H., Zhu, R., Lu, L., Zheng, X., Yu, T. (2014). Inhibition of green mold disease in mandarins by preventive applications of methyl jasmonate and antagonistic yeast Cryptococcus laurentii. Postharvest biology and technology, 88, 72-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.09.008

Han, J. H., Tao, W.Y., Hao, H.K., Zhang, B.L., Jiang, W.B., Niu, T.G., et al. (2006). Physiology and quality responses of fresh-cut broccoli florets pretreated with ethanol vapor. Journal of Food Science, 71, 385-389. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00042.x

Jayaraj, J., Rahman, M., Wan, A., Punja, Z.K. (2009). Enhanced resistance to foliar fungal pathogens in carrot by application of elicitors. Annals of Applied Biology, 155, 71-80.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2009.00321.x

Jiménez-Reyes, M.F., Carrasco, H., Olea, A., Silva-Moreno, E. (2018). Natural compounds: A sustainable alternative for controlling phytopathogens. PeerJ Reprints, 6, e26664v1. https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.26664v1

Jongsri, P., Wangsomboondee, T., Rojsitthisak, P., Seraypheap, K. (2016). Effect of molecular weights of chitosan coating on postharvest quality and physicochemical characteristics of mango fruit. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 73, 28-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2016.05.038

Ladanyia, M., Ladaniya, M. (2010). Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation. Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA.

Liu, Q., Xi, Z., Gao, J., Meng, Y., Lin, S., Zhang, Z. (2016). Effects of exogenous 24 epibrassinolide to control grey mould and maintain postharvest quality of table grapes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(5), 1236-1243. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13066

Luan, L. Y, Zhang. Z. W, Xi, Z. M, Huo, S. S, Ma, L. N. (2013). Brassinosteroids regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in the ripening of grape berries. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 34(2):196-203. https://doi.org/10.21548/34-2-1094

Mac-Adam, J.W., Nelson, C.J., Sharp, R.E. (1992). Peroxidase activity in the leaf elongation zone of tall fescue I. Spatial distribution of ionically bound peroxidase activity in genotypes differing in length of the elongation zone. Plant Physiology, 99(3), 872-878. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.99.3.872

N. G. Tzortzakis, C. M. Economakis. (2007). Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 8, 253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2007.01.002

Peng, J., Zheng, Y., Tang, S., Rui, H., Wang, C. (2009). Enhancing disease resistance in peach fruit with methyl jasmonate. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89(5), 802-808. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3516

Pretorius, J.C., Zietsman, P.C., Eksteen, D. (2002). Fungitoxic properties of selected South African plant species against plant pathogens of economic importance in agriculture. Annals of Applied Biology, 141(2), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2002.tb00203.x

Qin, G.Z., Tian, S.P., Xu, Y., Wan, Y.K. (2003). Enhancement of biocontrol efficacy of antagonistic yeasts by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruit. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 62(3), 147-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-5765(03)00046-8

Ranieri, A., Castagna, J., Pacini, B., Baldan, A., Mensuali. Sodi, G.F. (2003). Soldatini Early production and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide in the apoplast of sunflowers plants exposed to ozone. Journal of Experimental Botany, 54, 2529-2540. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erg270

Reddy, M.V.B., Angers, P., Gosselin, A., Arul, J. (1997). Characterization and use of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer in strawberry fruits. Phytochemistry, 47, 1515-1520. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00795-4

Romanazzi, G.; Murolo, S.; Feliziani, E. (2013). Effects of an innovative strategy to contain grapevine Bois noir: Field treatment with resistance inducers. Phytopathology, 103, 785-791. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-01-13-0031-R

Shan, B., Cai, Y.Z., Brooks, J.D., Corke, H. (2007). The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extracts. International Journal of food microbiology, 117(1), 112-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.03.003

Sharma, R.R., Singh, D., Singh, R. (2009). Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables by microbial antagonists: A review. Biological control, 50, 205-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.001

T, M., Ibrahim, S., Cliver, D. (2010).Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control, 21(9), 1199-1218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.02.003

Walters, D., Wash, D., Newton, A., Lyon, G. (2005). Induced resistance for plant disease control: Maximizing the efficacy of resistance elicitors. Phytopathology, 95, 1368-1373. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-95-1368

Wang Q, Lai TF, Qin GZ, Tian SP. (2009). Response of jujube fruits to exogenous oxalic acid treatment based on proteomic analysis. Plant Cell Physiol, 50:230-242. https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcn191

Wang, C.Y., Fung, R., Ding, C. (2003). Reducing chilling injury and enhancing transcript levels of heat Shock proteins, pr-proteins and alternative oxidase by methyl jasmonate and methyl salcylate in tomatoes and peppers. Meeting Abstract, 38, 860.

Wang, K.T., Jin, P., Han, L., Shang, H.T., Tang, S.S., Rui, H.J., et al. (2014). Methyl jasmonate induces resistance against Penicillium citrinum in Chinese bayberry by priming of defense responses. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 98, 90-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2014.07.009

Wasternack, C., Hause, B. (2013). Jasmonates-Biosynthesis and Role in Stress Responses and Developmental Processes. Annals of Botany, 111, 1021-1058. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mct067

Win, N.K.K., Jitareerat, P., Kanlayanarat, S., Sangchote, S. (2007). Effects of cinnamon extract, chitosan coating, hot water treatment and their combinations on crown rot disease and quality of banana fruit. Postharvest biology and technology, 45(3), 333-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.01.020

Wu, Y., Duan, X., Jing, G., Ouyang, Q., Tao, N. (2017). Cinnamaldehyde inhibits the mycelial growth of Geotrichum citri-aurantii and induces defense responses against sour rot in citrus fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 129, 23-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2017.03.004

Xu, W.T., Peng, X.L., Luo, Y.B., Wang, J., Guo, X., Huang, K.L. (2009). Physiological and biochemical responses of grape fruit seed extract dip on 'Redglobe' grape. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 42, 471-476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.09.002

Yao, H.J., Tian, S.P. (2005). Effects of a biocontrol agent and methyl jasmonate on postharvest diseases of peach fruit and the possible mechanisms involved. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98(4), 941-950. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02531.x

Zeng, K., Deng, Y., Ming, J., Deng, L. (2010). Induction of disease resistance and ROS metabolism in navel oranges by chitosan. Scientia Horticulturae, 126, 223-228.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.07.017

Zhang, H., Li, R. and Liu, W. (2011). Effects of Chitin and Its Derivative Chitosan on Postharvest Decay of Fruits: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12(2), 917-934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12020917

Zhu, F., Yun, Z., Ma, Q. (2015). Effects of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide treatment on postharvest quality and resistance of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 100, 8-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2014.09.014

Zhu, Z., Zhang. Z.Q., Qin, G.Z., Tian, S.P. (2010). Effects of brassinosteroids on postharvest disease and senescence of jujube fruit in storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 56, 50-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2009.11.014




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2019.114.2.9

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Behrooz Alijoo, vahid abdossi, Vahid Zarinnnia, Sepideh Kalatehjari, Mohamad Chamani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License.

                            


ISSN 1581-9175     eISSN 1854-1941