Comparison of the toxicity and repellency of two conventional neonicotinoids and a coconut-derived insecticide soap toward the parasitoid wasp Aphelinus mali Haldeman, 1851



The parasitoid wasp Aphelinus mali,Haldeman, 1851 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is the most important biological control agent against the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausemann, 1802) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which is an important apple orchards pest throughout the world. Based on the importance of using low-risk compounds to protect beneficial agents, the present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic and repellent effects of two conventional chemicals (imidacloprid and thiacloprid) and coconut-derived biopesticide soap (PalizinÒ) toward A. mali. The results of residual bioassays on apple leaf discs indicated that imidacloprid after 24 h and insecticide soap after 72 h exposure time categorized at the highest and no/little toxicity rates, respectively. Ingestion bioassays on filter papers revealed that imidacloprid and thiacloprid had moderate toxicity rate, while insecticide soap had a low-level toxicity rate. Repellency test at Y-tube olfactometer showed that the repellent effects of both chemicals were more than that of insecticide soap. It is concluded that coconut-derived soap was compatible with the parasitoid activity, and the caution should be paid when including the two neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid for E. lanigerum management.


Eriosoma lanigerum; Aphelinus mali; insecticides; toxicity; repellency

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