Replace of the EPOST glyphosate with pre herbicides and application of different LPOST glyphosate rates for weed control in established vineyard



Two-year field trials were conducted at two winegrowing districts (Kavadarci and Skopje in 2016 and 2017) to evaluate wheather oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin and flazasulfuron can replace early post-emergence (EPOST) application of glyphosate in established vineyard until its application in early summer period. The weed vegetation in vineyards in both years was consisted mainly of Chenopodium album L., Setaria viridis (L). Beauv., Papaver rhoeas L., Xanthium strumarium L., Lolium multiflorum Lam., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and flazasulfuron efficiently reduced predominant annual weeds and S. halepense seedlings in 2017, but not in 2016. PRE herbicides, regardless year, had no significant effect on C. dactylon. Opposite, the efficacy of EPOST applied glyphosate was significantly lower in 2017 compared to 2016. LPOST glyphosate applied at 2.0 l ha-1 provided at least 94 % control of dominant annual broadleaf and grass weeds. LPOST application of glyphosate at 2.0 l ha-1 and glyphosate at 2.0 and 4.0 l ha-1 resulted in unsatisfactory weed control of predominant perennial S. halepense, and C. dactylon, respectively. LPOST glyphosate applied at 4.0 l ha-1 provided control of S. halepense by 84 % or more. LPOST glyphosate applied at 8.0 l ha-1 reduced the amount of S. halepense and C. dactylon at least 97 %. Grapevine yield of both varieties was not lower in all herbicide treatments in 2016 compared with 2017. However, yield in the PRE herbicide treatments fb 2.0 and 4.0 l ha-1 glyphosate was collectively 15-19 % and 17-19 % lower compare to PRE herbicide treatments fb 8.0 l ha-1 glyphosate and standard two applications of glyphosate, respectively for both years and districts. No impacts to grapevine growth were observed from PRE herbicide treatments at either district


established vineyard; weeds; herbicides; weed control

Full Text:



Alister, C. A., Gomez, P.A., Rojas, S., and Kogan, M. (2009). Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen degradation under two irrigation conditions over four years application. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B. 44, 337-343.

Alshallash, K. S. (2014). Effect of pendimethalin, trifluralin and terbutryn on Lolium multiflorum growing with barley during pre-emergence stage. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 59, 239-242.

Anonymous, 2012. Mission Herbicide. Material Safety Data Shift (MSDS), Summit Agro, USA LLC.

Armel, G. R., Wilson, H. P., Richardson, R. J., and Hines, T. E. (2003). Mesotrione, acetochlor, and atrazine for weed management in corn (Zea mays). Weed Technology, 17(2), 284-290.[0284:MAAAFW]2.0.CO;2

Barba, A., Oliva, J., Garcґıa, M. A., and Rubio, A. (2003). Leaching of benfluralin, pendimethalin and propyzamide in different soil types. An Experinmental Approach. XII Symposium Pesticide Chemestry (pp. 299-308). June 4–6, Piacenza, Italy.

Baylis, A. D. (2000). Why glyphosate is a global herbicide: Strengths, weaknesses and prospects. Pest Management Science, 56(4), 299-308.<299::AID-PS144>3.0.CO;2-K

Boerboom, C. (2000). Timing postemergence herbicides in corn and soybeans. Wisconsin Crop Management Conference.

Boerboom, C., & Owen, M. (2006). Facts about glyphosate-resistant eeeds. The glyphosate, weeds, and crops series. GWC-1. Purdue Extension.

Bonasia, A., Conversa, G., Lazzizera, C., La Rotonda, P., and Elia, A. (2012). Weed control in lampascione Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. Crop Protection, 36, 65-72.

Chinnusamy N., Chinnagounder, C., and Krishnan, P. N. (2013). Evaluation of weed control efficacy and seed cotton yield in glyphosate tolerant transgenic cotton. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4(6), 1159-1163.

Chomas, A. J., & Kells, J. J. (2004). Triazine-resistant common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) control in corn with preemergence herbicides. Weed Technology, 18, 551-554.

Dev J., J.N. Singh and G. Singh. 1992. Development and use of a soil bioassay for pendimethalin and fluchloralin. Tropical Pest Management, 38(1), 22-24.

Filipovski, G. (2006). Soil classification of the Republic of Macedonia. MASA, 313-323.

Frans, R.E., Talbert, R., Marx, D., and Crowley, H. (1986). Experimental design and techniques for measuring and analyzing plant responses to weed control practices. In N. D. Camper ed. Research Methods in Weed Science. 3rd ed. Champaign, IL: Southern Weed Science Society, (pp. 37-38).

Grey, T.L., & McCullough, P. E. (2012). Sulfonylurea herbicides’ fate in soil: Dissipation, mobility, and other processes. Weed Technology, 26(3), 579-581.

Grey, T., & Webster, T. (2013). Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) response to pendimethalin formulation, timing, and method of application. Herbicides - Current Research and Case Studies in Use. InTech Publisher.

Grove, M. D. (2011). An update on the pending new registrations of flazasulfuron in the United States. Proceedings of the Weed Science Society of America 64 (pp. 196).

Holm, L.G., Donald, P., Pancho, J.V., and Herberger, J. P. (1977). The world’s worst weeds: Distribution and biology. (pp. 609) The University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawai.

Jursík, M., Andr, J., Holec, J. and Soukup, J. (2011). Efficacy and selectivity of post-emergent application of flumioxazin and oxyfluorfen in sunflower. Plant Soil Environment, 57(11), 532-539.

Kadir, S., Bauernfeind. R., and Tisserat, N. (2004). Commercial grape production in Kansas. Manhattan (pp. 26). KS: Kansas State University Cooperative Research and Extension publication M2370.

Kadir, S., & Bauernfeind, R. (2005). Midwest commercial small fruit and grape spray guide. (pp. 55-59). West Lafayette: Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service.

Kadir, S., & Al-Khatib, K. (2006). Weed control in grape after fall and spring application of selected herbicides. Weed Technology, 20, 74-80.

Kaps, M. L., & Odneal, M. B. (1991). Fall-applied preemergent herbicides in a Missouri vineyard do not control annual weeds the following season. Hortscience, 26(10), 1292-1293.

Knežević, S. Z., Evans, S. P., Blankenship, E. E., Van Acker, R. C., and Lindquist, J. L. (2002). Critical period for weed control: The concept and data analysis. Weed Science, 50, 773-786.[0773:CPFWCT]2.0.CO;2

Kostov, T. (2006). Herbology. Scientific Book. (pp. 371). The University Press of the Republic of Macedonia, Skopje.

Leak, S. (2013). Flazasulfuron – A new total herbicide for amenity areas.

Lopes Ovejero, R. F., Soares, D. J., Oliveira, W. S., Fonseca, L. B., Berger, G. U., Soteres, J. K., and Christoffoleti, P. J. (2013). Residual herbicides in weed management for glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil. Planta Daninha, 31(4), 947-959.

Lyon, D.J., & Wilson, R. G. 2005. Chemical weed control in dryland and irrigated chickpea. Weed Technology, 19(4), 959-965.

Montgomery, D., Evans, C., and Martin, D. (2010). Valuation of nicosulfuron, flazasulfuron and MSMA for johnsongrass control in bermudagrass roadsides. Oklahoma Department of Transportation.

Mitchem, W. E., & Monks, D. W. (2005). Weed management for southeast vineyards. Horticulture Information Leaflet 205-C. College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Department of Horticultural Science.

Monsanto Company (2005). 2005 Technology Use Guide (pp. 27-28). St. Louis, MO.

Nieto, J., Guida, G., and Corbellini, G. (1998). Flazasulfuron (Chikara 25 WG), nuova sulfonilurea per il controllo delle malerbe presenti su vite, agrumi, olivo ad incolti. ATTI Giornale Fitopatologiche, 345-350.

Novosel, K. M., Renner, K. A., Kells, J.J., and Spandl, E. (1998). Metolachlor efficacy as influenced by three acetolac-tate synthase-Inhibiting herbicides. Weed Technology, 12, 248-253.

Nurse, R. E., Swanton, C. J., Tardif, F. J., and Sikkema, P. H. (2006). Weed control and yield are improved when glyphosate is preceded by a residual herbicide in glyphosate-tolerant maize (Zea mays). Crop Protection, 25(11), 1174-1179.

Patil, D. R., Sulikeri, G. S., and Pati, H. B. (2008). Studies on the weed Management practices in thompson seedless grape vineyard. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 785: International Symposium on Grape Production and Processing, Baramati (Pune). Maharashtra, India.

Pool, R. M., Dunst., R. M., and Lasko, A. N. (1990). Comparison of sod, mulch, cultivation, and herbicide floor management practices for grape production in nonirrigated vineyards. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 115, 872-877.

Raimondi, M. A., Oliveira, JR. R. S., Constantin, J., Biffe, D. F., Arantes, J. G. Z., Franchini, L. H., Rios, F. A., Blainski, E., and Osipe, J. B. (2010). Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus species. Planta Daninha, 28, 1073-1085.

Ramsey, F. L., & Schafer, D. W. (1997). The statistical sleuth: A course in methods of data analysis. Belmont, (pp, 91-97). CA: Duxbury.

Sanguankeo, P. P., Leon, R.G., and Malone, J. (2009). Impact of weed management practices on grapevine growth and yield components. Weed Science, 57, 103-107.

Singh, M., Ramirez, A. H. M., Jhala, A. and Malik, J. M. (2012). Weed control efficacy and citrus response to flazasulfuron applied alone or in combination with other herbicides. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3, 520-527.

Stewart, C. L., Soltani, N., Nurse, R. E., Hamill, A. S., and Sikkema, P.H. (2012). Precipitation influences pre- and post-emergence herbicide efficacy in corn. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3, 1193-1204.

Swanton, C. J., Weaver, S., Cowan, P., Van Acker, R., Deen, W., and Shreshta, A. (1999). Weed thresholds: theory and applicability. Journal of Crop Production, 2, 9-29.

Taylor-Lovell, S., Wax, L. M., and Bollero, G. (2002). Preemergence flumioxazin and pendimethalin and postemergence herbicide systems for soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 16(3), 502-511.[0502:PFAPAP]2.0.CO;2

Tomlin, C. D. S. (2000). Flazasulfuron. In: Tomlin, C.D.S. (Ed.), The Pesticide Manual, 12th ed. British Crop Protection Council (pp. 417-418). Surrey (UK).

Yen, J., Sheu, W., and Wang, Y. (2003). Dissipation of the herbicide oxyfluorfen in subtropical soils and its potential to contaminate groundwater. Ecotoxicology and Environment Safety, 54, 151-156.

Ying, G., & Williams, B. (2000). Dissipation of herbicides in soil grapes in South Australian vineyard. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 78, 283-289.

Zabadal, T.J., & Dittmer, T.W. (1994). Setting priorities for vine management in a new vineyard planting. Proc.9th Annual Midwest Regionl Grape and Wine Conference (pp, 63-66).

Đurović, R., Gajić-Umiljendić, J., and Đorđević, T. (2008). Determination of atrazine, acetochlor, clomazone, pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen in soil by a solid phase microextraction method pestic. Phytomedicine, 23, 265-271.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Arben Beni Mehmeti

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941