Morphological and molecular characterization and new distributional record of Tetrastichus miser (Nees, 1834) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) from Kashmir

Ajaz RASOOL, Bashir A. GANAI, Shreevihar SANTHOSH, Tariq AHMAD


Tetrastichus miser (Nees, 1834) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is a parasitoid of Curculioninae and Scolytinae infesting various trees of economic importance. In the present study, it was collected from dried Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don (Pinaceae) infested with Scolytus beetles using sweep net and aspirator. The species is reported first time from Kashmir valley. Identification of a parasitoid is of paramount significance for studying its behavior, ecology, life cycle and usage in various biological control programmes. In addition to morphological description, molecular analysis using Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I was carried out to complement morphotaxonomy and to facilitate its easier identification for future studies. Phylogenetic analysis by Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) method  showed Isolates of Tetrastichusmiser species clustering in same clade and separated from its closest match Tetrastichinae sp.Inter-specific divergence between Tetrastichusmiser and Tetrastichinae sp. was evident and ranged from 0.09 to 0.10 % (0.05 % mean). No overlap was observed between maximum distance within species and minimum distance between species.


Tetrastichus miser; Cedrus deodara; beetle; Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I; Clade; morphotaxonomy; molecular analysis

Full Text:



Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schäffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W., & Lipman, D. J. (1997). Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Research, 25(17), 3389-3402.

Benson, D. A., Karsch-Mizrachi, I., Lipman, D. J., Ostell, J., & Sayers, E. W. (2008). GenBank. Nucleic Acids Research, 37(suppl_1), D26-D31.

Boucek, Z., & Askew, R. R. (1968). Palearctic Eulophidae (excl. Tetrastichinae), Hym. Chalcidoidea. Le Francois.

Boucek, Z., & Graham, M. D. V. (1978). British check-list of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): taxonomic notes and additions. Ento-mologist’s Gazette, 29(4), 225-235.

Burks, B. D. (1943). The North American parasitic wasps of the genus Tetrastichus a contribution to biological control of insect pests. Proceedings of the United States National Museum.

Chevenet, F., Brun, C., Bañuls, A. L., Jacq, B., & Christen, R. (2006). TreeDyn: towards dynamic graphics and annotations for analyses of trees. BMC Bioinformatics, 7(1), 1-9.

Dereeper, A., Guignon, V., Blanc, G., Audic, S., Buffet, S., Chevenet, F.& Gascuel, O. (2008). Phylogeny. fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist. Nucleic Acids Research, 36(suppl_2), W465-W469.

Edgar, R. C. (2004). MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Re-search, 32(5), 1792-1797.

Ewing, B., Hillier, L., Wendl, M. C., & Green, P. (1998). Base-calling of automated sequencer traces usingPhred. I. Accuracy assessment. Genome Research, 8(3), 175-185.

Felsenstein, J. (1985), Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution, 39(4), 783-791.

Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R and Vrijenhoek, R. (1994). DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294-299.

Graham, M. D. V. (1976). Relationships and synonymy of Winnemana Crawford (Hymenoptera Eulophidae). Journal of Entomol-ogy Series B, Taxonomy, 44(3), 281-282.

Graham, M. D. V. (1991). A reclassification of the European Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae): revision of the remaim-ing genera. Memoirs of the American Entomological Instinstitute, 49, 1-322.

Hall, T., Biosciences, I., & Carlsbad, C. (2011). BioEdit: an important software for molecular biology. GERF Bull Biosci, 2(1), 60-61.

Hayat, M., & Shahi, M. H. (2004). Taxonomic notes on Indian Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)—1. On the types of some Tetrastichinae. Oriental Insects, 38(1), 303-314.

Hebert, P. D., Penton, E. H., Burns, J. M., Janzen, D. H., & Hallwachs, W. (2004). Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Scienc-es, 101(41), 14812-14817.

Kimura, M. (1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16(2), 111-120.

Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C., & Tamura, K. (2018). MEGA X: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across compu-ting platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35(6), 1547-1549.

Lanfear, R., Calcott, B., Ho, S. Y., & Guindon, S. (2012). PartitionFinder: combined selection of partitioning schemes and substi-tution models for phylogenetic analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29(6), 1695-1701.

LaSalle, J. (1990). Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with spider egg sacs. Journal of Natural History, 24(6), 1377-1389.

LaSalle, J. (1994). North american genera of Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Journal of Natural History, 28(1), 109-236.

Narasimham, A. U. (1984). Comparative studies on Tetrastichus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) and T. asthenogmus (Waterston), two primary parasites of cockroach oothecae, and on their hyperparasite Tetrastichus sp. (T. miser (Nees) group)(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 74(2), 175-189.

Narendran, T. C. (2007). Indian chalcidoid parasitoids of the Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Occasional Paper-Records of the Zoological Survey of India, (272).

Noyes, J. S. (2002). Universal Chalcidoidea database. Uk/entomology / chalcidoids.

Noyes, J.S. (2014). Universal Chalcidoidea Database. World Wide Web electronic publica-tion. (accessed, 3rd Feberuary, 2021).

Powell, C., Caleca, V., Sinno, M., van Staden, M., van Noort, S., Rhode, C., Allsopp, E&Van Asch, B.(2019). Barcoding of parasi-toid wasps (Braconidae and Chalcidoidea) associated with wildand cultivated olives in the Western Cape of South Africa. Genome, 62(3), 183-199.

Rasool, A., Ahmad, T., & Ganai, B. A. (2018). An overview of molecular identification of insect fauna with special emphasis on chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of India. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 111(1), 229-239.

Ronquist, F., & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformat-ics, 19(12), 1572-1574.

Santos, A. M., Besnard, G., & Quicke, D. L. (2011). Applying DNA barcoding for the study of geographical variation in host–parasitoid interactions. Molecular Ecology Resources, 11(1), 46-59.

Schauff, M. E. (1997). Eulophidae. Annotated Keys of the Genera of Neartic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera), 325-429.

Shree, A., & Singh, S. (2015). Diversity of family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in forest, horticulture, and habitats of Doon valley of Uttarakhand, India. Indian Forester, 141(8), 873-876.

Smith, M. A., Rodriguez, J. J., Whitfield, J. B., Deans, A. R., Janzen, D. H., Hallwachs, W., & Hebert, P. D. (2008). Extreme diver-sity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collec-tions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(34), 12359-12364.

Sujeevan, R., & Hebert, P. (2007). BOLD: the Barcode of life data system. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 355-364.

Talebi, A. A., Asadi, R., Fathipour, Y., Kamali, K., & Moharramipour, S. (2010). Eulophid parasitoids of agromyzid leafminers genus Liriomyza (Dipt.: Agromyzidae) in Tehran, Iran. IOBC WPRS Bulletin, 28, 263-266.

Talebi, A. A., Khoramabadi, A. M., & Rakhshani, E. (2011). Checklist of eulophid wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Iran. Check List, 7(6), 708-719.

Van Den Berg, E., Prinsloo, G. L. & Neser, S. 1990. An unusual host association: Aprostocetus species, (Eulophidae), a hymenopterous predator of the nematode, Subhanguina mobilis (Chit & Fisher, 1975) Brezski, 1981 (Anguinidae). Phytophylactica, 22, 125-127



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Ajaz RASOOL, Bashir A. GANAI, Shreevihar SANTHOSH, Tariq AHMAD


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941