Evaluation of traits related to bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root in drought tolerance applied at the beginning of vegetative and reproductive stages



Roots play an important role in wheat grain yield, especially under drought stress conditions. To investigate root characteristics under drought stress conditions in bread wheat, 90 lines F10 obtained from the crossing (‘Yecora Rojo’ × ‘Chinese Spring’) randomly with the parents of the population were examined. The study was conducted in the form of a split-plot design with a randomized complete block base in three conditions including: 1. no stress, 2. application of drought stress at the beginning of the vegetative stage, and 3. application of drought stress at the beginning of the reproductive stage. The results showed, interaction between genotype and condition of drought was significant for all root-related traits, except shallow root dry mass, at the level of 1 % probability. The response of root-related traits to different types of drought stress was very complex. The longest root length, decrease for 13.3 % was during stress at the beginning of the vegetative stage in comparison to non-stress conditions, while the same trait increased for 4.9 % during stress at the beginning of the reproductive stage, comparison to non-stress conditions. The results of principal component analysis under non-stress conditions showed that by considering the distribution of genotypes compared to the first two components, genotypes can be identified that have more yield with the proper root condition and vice versa.


deep root; drought tress; main components; shallow root; tolerance index

Full Text:



Ali, M. B. and A. N. El-Sadek. (2016). Evaluation of drought tolerance indices for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Communications in Biometry and Crop Science, 11(1), 77-89.

Bardgett, R. D., L. Mommer and F. T. De-Vries. (2014). Going underground: root traits as drivers of ecosystem processes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 29(12), 692-699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2014.10.006

Dalal, M., S. Sahu, S. Tiwari, A. R. Rao and K. Gaikwad. (2018). Transcriptome analysis reveals interplay between hormones, ROS metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis for drought-induced root growth in wheat. Plant Physiolo-gy and Biochemistry,130, 482-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.07.035

Ehdaie, B., A. P. Layne and J. G. Waines. (2012). Root system plasticity to drought influences grain yield in bread wheat. Euphytica, 186, 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-011-0585-9

Ehdaie, B., S. A. Mohammadi and M. Nouraein. (2016). QTLs for root traits at mid-tillering and for root and shoot traits at maturity in a RIL population of spring bread wheat grown under well-watered conditions. Euphytica, 211(1), 17-38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-016-1670-x

Ehdaie, B. and J. G. Waines. (1994). Genetic analysis of carbon isotope discrimination and agronomic characters in a bread wheat cross. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 88(8), 1023-1028. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00220811

Gao, Y. and J. P. Lynch. (2016). Reduced crown root number improves water acquisition under water deficit stress in maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Experimental Botany, 67(15), 4545-4557. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw243

Ghassemi-Golezani, K., S. Heydari and B. Dalil. (2018). Field performance of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars under drought stress. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 111(1), 25-32. https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2018.111.1.03

Hammer, G. L., Z. Dong, G. McLean, A. Doherty, C. Messina, J. Schussler, C. Zinselmeier, S. Paszkiewicz and M. Cooper. (2009). Can changes in canopy and/or root system architecture explain historical maize yield trends in the US corn belt. Crop Science, 49(1), 299-312. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2008.03.0152

Hassani, F. (2016). Evalution of terminal drought tolerance and validation of its related EST-SSRs in bread wheat. Thesis for the degree of Ph. D. in Plant Breeding, Shahre-kord university, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract).

Heidari, Z. (2012). Determination of chromosomal position of genes controlling some physiological traits related to drought re-sistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and their relationship with root traits, using selected alternative lines. Thesis for the degree of M.Sc. in Plant Breeding, Shahre-kord university, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract)

Jin, K., J. Shen, R. W. Ashton, R. P. White, I. C. Dodd, M. A. Parry and W. R. Whalley. (2015a). Wheat root growth responses to horizontal stratification of fertiliser in a water-limited environment. Plant and Soil, 386(1-2), 77-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-014-2249-8

Jin, K., J. Shen, R. W. Ashton, R. P. White, I. C. Dodd, A. L. Phillips, M. A. Parry and W. R. Whalley. (2015b). The effect of impedance to root growth on plant architecture in wheat. Plant and Soil, 392(1-2), 323-332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2462-0

Jin, Z., X. Qing-wu, K. E. Jessup, H. Xiao-bo, H. Bao-zhen, T. H. Marek, X. Wenwei, S. R. Evett, S. A. O’Shaughnessy and D. K. Brauer. (2018). Shoot and root traits in drought tolerant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Journal of Integra-tive Agriculture, 5(17), 1093-1105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61869-0

Kadam, S., K. Singh, S. Shukla, S. Goel, P. Vikram, V. Pawar, K. Gaikwad, R. Khanna-Chopra and N. Singh. (2012). Genomic associations for drought tolerance on the short arm of wheat chromosome 4B. Functional & Integrative Genomics, 12(3), 447-464. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10142-012-0276-1

Khosravi, S., R. Azizinezhad, A. Baghizadeh and M. Maleki. (2020). Evaluation and comparison of drought toler-ance in some wild diploid populations, tetraploid and hexaploid cultivars of wheat using stress tolerance indi-ces. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 115(1), 105-112. https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2020.115.1.1336

Koolacharta, R., S. Jogloya, N. Vorasoota, S. Wongkaewb, C. C. Holbrookc, N. Jongrungklanga, T. Kesmalaa and A. Patanothaia. (2013). Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield responses to terminal drought. Field Crops Research, 149, 366–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2013.05.024

Mohammadi, R. and A. Abdulahi. (2017). Evaluation of durum wheat genotypes based on drought tolerance indi-ces under different levels of drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Belgrade, 62(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.2298/JAS1701001M

Nadeem, M., J. Li, M. Yahya, A. Sher, C. Ma, X. Wang and L. Qiu. (2019). Research progress and perspective on drought stress in legumes: a review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(10), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102541

Richards, R. A. (2008). Genetic opportunities to improve cereal root systems for dryland agriculture. Plant Produc-tion Science, 11, 12–16. https://doi.org/10.1626/pps.11.12

Shanker, A. K., M. Maheswari, S. k. Yadav, S. Desai, D. Bhanu, N. B. Attal and B. Venkateswarlu (2014). Drought stress responses in crops. Functional & Integrative Genomics, 14(1), 11-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10142-013-0356-x

Harma, S., S. Z. Xu, B. Ehdaie, A. Hoops, T. J. Close, A. J. Lukaszewski and J. G. Waines. (2011). Dissection of QTL effects for root traits using a chromosome arm-specific mapping population in bread wheat. Theoretical and Ap-plied Genetics, 122, 759–769. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-010-1484-5

Sinha, R., V. Irulappan, B. Mohan-Raju, A. Suganthi and M. Senthil-Kumar. (2019). Impact of drought stress on simultaneously occurring pathogen infection in field-grown chickpea. ScientificReports, 9(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41463-z

Sofi, P. A., M. Djanaguiraman, K. H. M. Siddique and P. V. V. Prasad. (2018). Reproductive fitness in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under drought stress is associated with root length and volume. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 23(4), 796-809. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40502-018-0429-x

Thangthonga N., S. Jogloya, V. Pensukb, T. Kesmalaa and N. Vorasoot. (2016). Distribution patterns of peanut roots under different durations ofearly season drought stress. Field Crops Research, 198, 40–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.08.019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14720/aas.2021.117.4.2166


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Arman Eskandari Shahraki, Mohammad-Mehdi Sohani, Sadollah Hooshmand, Ali Aalami, Habibullah Samizadeh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941