Issues relating to the use of cold storage method in the production of herbaceous and woody cuttings of ornamental plants



In ornamental horticulture, propagation by cuttings is the most important and most commonly used method of vegetative propagation of plants. During propagation, growers use various techniques to ensure or maintain the highest quality of material. With the relocation of the world’s major ornamental plant growers to tropical and subtropical areas, maintaining the quality of the material during transport has become crucial for further plant production. The method of cold storage of plant material is used in vegetative propagation and in the transport of cuttings of herbaceous and woody ornamental plants from equatorial areas to the areas where they are to be rooted. Cold storage lowers the temperature of the plant material, thus slowing down the metabolism of the plants during storage, preserving the growth potential and quality of the cuttings and extending their shelf life. This paper reviews the management of cuttings of various ornamental plant species by cold storage, focusing on cuttings of herbaceous plants, cuttings of woody plants, and in vitro production.


cold storage; cuttings; vegetative propagation; ornamental plants


Agullo-Antón, M. Á., Sánchez-Bravo, J., Acosta, M., Druege, U. (2011). Auxins or sugars:what makes the difference in the adventitious rooting of stored carnation cuttings? Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 30, 100–113.

Arteca, R. N., Arteca, J. M., Wang, T. W., Schlagnhaufer, C. D. (1996). Physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes in Pelargonium cuttings subjected to short-term storage conditions. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 121(6), 1063–1068.

Beardmore, T., Charest, P. J. (1995). Black spruce somatic embryo germination and dessication tolerance. I. Effects of abscisic acid, cold, and heat treatments on the germinability of mature black spruce somatic embryos. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25, 1763–1772.

Behrens, V. (1988). Storage of unrooted cuttings. In: T.D. Davis, B. E. Haissig & N. Sankhla (Eds.), Adventitious Root Formation In Cuttings (pp. 235–247). Portland: Dioscorides Press.

Blazich, F. A. (1988). Mineral nutrition and adventitious rooting. In: T.D. Davis, B. E. Haissig & N. Sankhla (Eds.), Adventitious Root Formation In Cuttings (pp. 61–69). Portland: Dioscorides Press.

Bredmose, N. B., Nielsen, K. L. (2009). Controlled atmosphere storage at high CO2 and low O2 levels affects stomatal conductance and influence root formation in kalanchoe cuttings. Scientia Horticulturae, 122, 91–95.

Brondani, G. E., Benedini Baccarin, F. J., de Wit Ondas, H. W. (2012). Low temperature, IBA concentrations and optimal time for adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii mini cuttings. Journal of Forestry Research, 23(4), 583−592.

Chen, J. (2021). Ornamental plant research inaugural editorial. Ornamental Plant Research, 1(1), 1–2.

Conover, C. A. (1976). Postharvest handling of rooted and unrooted cuttings of tropical ornamentals. HortScience, 11, 127–128.

Curtis, O. F., Rodney, D. R. (1952). Ethylene injury to nursery trees in cold storage. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 50, 104–108.

Druege, U. 2009. Involvement of carbohydrates in survival and adventitious root formation of cuttings within the scope of global horticulture. In: K. Niemi & C. Scagel (Eds.), Adventitious Root Formation of Forest Trees and Horticultural Plants – From Genes to Applications (pp. 187–201). Kerala: Research Signpost.

Druege, U., Kadner, R. (2008). Response of post-storage carbohydrate levels in pelargonium cuttings to reduced air temperature during rooting and the relationship with leaf senescence and adventitious root formation. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 47, 126–35.

Druege, U., Zerche, S., Kadner, R. (2004). Nitrogen and storage-affected carbohydrate partitioning in high-light-adapted Pelargonium cuttings in relation to survival and advetitious root formation under low light. Annals of Botanny, 94, 831–842.

Druege, U., Zerche, S., Kadner, R., Ernst, M. (2000). Relation between nitrogen status, carbohydrate distribution and subsequent rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings as affected by pre-harvest nitrogen supply and cold-storage. Annals of Botanny, 85, 687–701.

Forschner, W., Reuther, G. (1984). Photosynthese und Wasserhaushalt von Pelargonium-Stecklingen wahrend der Bewurzelung unter dem Einfluss verschiedener Licht- und CO2-Bedingungen. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 49, 182–190.

Garrido, G., Cano, E. A., Arnao, M. B., Acosta, M., Sánchez-Bravo, J. (1996). Influence of cold storage period and auxin treatment on the subsequent rooting of carnation cuttings. Scientia Horticulturae, 65, 73–84.

Garrido, G., Cano, E.A., Acosta, M., Sánchez-Bravo, J. (1998). Formation and growth of roots in carnation cuttings: influence of cold storage period and auxin treatment. Scientia Horticulturae, 74, 219–231.

Garrido, G., Guerrero, J. R., Cano, E. A., Acosta, M., Sánchez-Bravo, J. (2002). Origin and basipetal transport of the IAA responsible for rooting of carnation cuttings. Physiologia Plantarum, 114, 303–312.

Guy, C. L. (1990). Cold acclimation and freezing stress tolerance: role of protein metabolism. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 41, 187–223.

Haissig, B. E. (1986). Metabolic processes in adventitious rooting of cuttings. In: M. B. Jackson (Ed.), New root formation in plants and cuttings (pp. 141–189). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers: Dordrecht.

Hartmann, H. T., Kester, D. E., Daviesw, F. T., Geneve, L. R. (1997). Plant propagation. Principles and Practices. New Jersey, Prentice Hall: 770 p.

Hausman, J. F., Evers, D., Thiellement, H., Jouve, L. (2000). Compared responses of poplar cuttings and in vitro raised shoots to short-term chilling treatments. Plant Cell Reports, 19, 954–960.

Hawramee, O. K. A. (2019). Rooting of the purple robe Robinia pseudoacacia L. cuttings as influenced by cutting time, cold storage and IBA. Journal of Duhok University, 22(2), 131–142.

Jain, S. M., Ochatt, S. (2010). Protocols for in vitro propagation of ornamental plants. Totowa, NJ, USA, Humana press: 400 p.

Kadner, R. (2005). The influence of stock plant light exposure on optimum storage conditions and rooting behaviour of Plectranthus coleoides cuttings. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 70(3), 105–108.

Kadner, R., Druege, U. (2004). Role of ethylene action in ethylene production and poststorage leaf senescence and survival of pelargonium cuttings. Plant Growth Regulation, 43, 187–196.

Kirk, H. G., Andersen, A. S. (1986). Influence of low pressure storage on stomatal opening and rooting of cuttings. Acta Horticulturae, 181, 393–397.

Klopotek, Y., Franken, P., Klaering, H. P., Ficher, K., Hause, B., Hajirezaei, M. R., Druege, U. (2016). A higher sink competitiveness of the rooting zone and invertases are involved in dark stimulation of adventitious root formation in Petunia hybrida cuttings. Plant Science, 243, 10–22.

Klopotek, Y., Haensch, K. T., Hause, B., Hajirezaei, M. R., Druege, U. (2010). Dark exposure of petunia cuttings strongly improves adventitious root formationand enhances carbohydrate availability during rooting in the light. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167, 547–554.

Lopez, R. G., Runkle, E. S. (2008). Low-temperature storage influences morphological and physiological characteristics of nonrooted cuttings of New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 50, 95–102.

Osterc, G. (2009). A change in perspective: Stockplant qualities that influence adventitious root formation of woody species. In: A. Niemi & C. Scagel (Eds.). Adventitious Root Formation of Forest Trees and Horticultural Plants – From Genes to Applications (pp. 175–185). Kerala, Research Signpost.

Osterc, G., Rusjan D. (2013). Drevesničarstvo in trsničarstvo. Gojenje lesnatih sadik in trtnih cepljenk. Kmečki glas, 112 str.

Paton, F., Schwabe, W. W. (1987). Storage of cuttings of Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey. Journal of Horticultural Science, 62(1), 79–87.

Pond, S. E., von Aderkas, P., Bonga, J. M. (2002). Improving tolerance of somatic emrbyos of Picea glauca to flash desiccation with a cold treatment (desiccation after cold acclimation). In vitro cellular and developmental Biology- Plant, 38, 334–341.

Purer, O., Mayak, S. (1989). Pelargonium cuttings- effect of growth regulators. Acta Horticulturae, 261, 347–354.

Rapaka, V. K., Bessler, B., Schreiner, M., Druege, U. (2005). Interplay between initial carbohydrate availability, current photosynthesis, and andvetitious root formation in Pelargonium cuttings. Plant Science, 168(6), 1547–1560.

Rapaka, V. K., Faust, J. E., Dole, J. M., Runkle, E. S. (2007). Diurnal carbohydrate dynamics affect postharvest ethylene responsiveness in portulaca (Portulaca grandiflora ‘Yubi Deep Rose’) unrooted cuttings. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 44, 293–299.

Ravnikar, M. (1996). Rastlinske tkivne kulture. In: P. Raspor (Ed.), Biotehnologija. Osnovna znanja (pp. 149–164). Ljubljana, Bia.

Richards, M. R., Rupp, L. A. (2012). Etiolation improves rooting of bigtooth maple cuttings. HortTechnology, 22(3), 1–6.

Rudnicki, R. M., Nowak, J., Goszczynska, D. M. (1991). Cold storage and transportation conditions for cut flowers, cuttings and potted plants. Acta Horticulturae, 298, 225–236.

Shibuya, T., Taniguchi, T., Tsukuda, S., Shiozaki, S., Itagaki, K. (2014). Adventitious root formation of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) cuttings is stimulated by soaking basal portion of cuttings in warmed water while cooling their apical portion. New Forests, 45, 589–602.

Shibuya, T., Tsukuda, S., Tokuda, A., Shiozaki, S., Endo, R., Kitaya, Y. (2013). Effects of warming basal ends of Carolina poplar (Populus x canadensis Moench.) softwood cuttings at controlled low-air-temperature on their root growth and leaf damage after planting. Journal of Forestry Research, 18, 279–284.

Sinkovič, T. (2000). Uvod v botaniko. Ljubljana, Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za agronomijo: 176 p.

Skutnik, E., Rabiza-Świder, J., Jędrzejuk, A., Łukaszewska, A. (2020). The effect of the long-term cold storage and preservatives on senescence of cut herbaceous peony flowers. Agronomy, 10(11), 1631.

Slater, A., Scott, N. W., Fowler, M. R. (2008). The genetic manipulation of plants. 2nd edition. New York, Oxford University Press: 372 p.

Smith, P. M. (1982). Diseases during propagation of woody ornamentals. Acta Horticulturae, 2, 884–893.

Smole, J., Črnko J. (2000). Razmnoževanje sadnih rastlin. Ljubljana, Kmečki glas: 141 p.

Statistični urad RS. Pridelava okrasnih rastlin.〈=2 (19.7.2022)

Sun, J., Guo, H., Tao, J. (2022). Effects of harvest stage, storage, and preservation technology on postharvest ornamental value of cut peony (Paeonia lactiflora) flowers. Agronomy, 12(2), 230.

Van der Hoeven, B. (1990). Lage temperatuur bevordert stekverbranding. Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij, 31, 50–51.

Veierskov, B. (1988). Relations between carbohydrates and adventitious root formation. In: T.D. Davis, B. E. Haissig & N. Sankhla (Eds.), Adventitious Root Formation In Cuttings (pp. 70–79). Portland: Dioscorides Press.

Von Aderkas, P., Kong, L., Hawkins, B., Rohr, B. 2007. Effects of non-freezing low temperatures on quality and cold tolerance of mature somatic embryos of interior spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x P. engelmanii Parry ex Engelm. Propagation of Ornamental Plants, 7, 112–121.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Matej Vošnjak, Gregor Osterc


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941