An assessment of population fluctuations of citrus pest woolly whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, 1896) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid Cales noacki Howard, 1907 (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae): A case study from Northwestern Algeria

Abdelhaq MAHMOUDI, Leila ALLAL BENFEKIH, Abdurrahman YIGIT, Mattheus F. A. GOOSEN


The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the parasitoid Cales noacki Howard, 1907 (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) in the biological control of the citrus pest woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell,1896) in Northwestern Algeria. In particular the pest and parasitoid population fluctuations under different environmental conditions were investigated. The study was conducted by examination and sampling of whitefly adult populations on young shoots and catches as well as its parasitoid during a 12-month period by counting the parasite and infested-live larvae. Results showed remarkable variations in abundance indices and infestation rates of larvae and adults that depended on the growth flush in foliage and meteorological conditions of the region. The woolly whitefly manifested three flight periods coinciding with three growth flushes of orange sap; in autumn towards the end of September followed by mid-November with the highest average abundance of 10 individuals per branch and a third flight period in mid-May. Phases of growth flush seemed to have an effect on the temporal distribution of adults over the sampling period from July to June. Pest emergence appeared favorable at 12-20 °C as the minimum interval temperature whereas the maximum varied between 25-33 °C with humidity levels of 50 % and 75 %. As for the incidence of natural enemies on whiteflies, despite their abundance, their impact was not optimum due to the large fluctuations in number of whiteflies. Although the pest-parasitoid complex appears to be important in the orchard, the biological regulation exerted by C. noacki while effective is insufficient for the complete neutralization of citrus woolly whitefly A. floccosus. An integrated approach is needed using additional natural enemies associated with the woolly whitefly.


citrus; biological control; population dynamics; Aleurothrixus floccosus; Cales noacki; phenology; Chlef Northwestern Algeria

Full Text:



Abbassi, M. (1980). Études relatives à Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell et à son parasite spécifique Cales noacki Howard. Les cahiers de la recherche agronomique, 35, 77-157.

Abrol, D. P. (2015). Pollination Biology, Vol.1: Pests and pollinators of fruit crops. Switzerland. Springer International PublishingAgusti, M., Zaragoza, S., Bleiholder, H., Buhr, L., Hack, H., klose, R., Stauss, R. (1995). Escala BBCH para la descripción de los estadios fenológicos del desarrollo de los agrios (Gén. Citrus). Levante Agricola Revista internacional de citricos, (3),189-199.

Barbagallo, S., Longo, S., Rapisarda, C. (1986). Whiteflies and psyllid injurious to citrus. In Integrated Pest Control in Citrus Groves. In Proceedlings Experts Meeting , (pp. 89–98). Acireale

Bellabas, A. (2011). Etude de Base sur les agrumes en Algérie. Ed1, Food and Agriculture Organization, 5-7.

Berkani, A, (1989). Possibilités de régulation des populations d’Aleurothrixus floccosus Mask. (Homopt., Aleurodidae) sur agrumes par Cales noacki How. (Hymenopt., Aphelinidae) en Algérie. Thèse de Doctorat Etat. Université Aix-Marseille, France.

Biche, M. (2012). Les principaux insectes ravageurs des agrumes en Algérie et leurs ennemis naturels. Guide pratique, 4-5.

Bran, P., Onillon, J.C. (1978). Dynamique du végétal et estimation des populations de ravageurs inféodés aux Citrus. Fruits, 33, 807-810.

Del-Bene, G., Gargani E. (1991). Osservazioni su Aleurothrixus floccosus (Mask.) (Hom.: Aleyrodidae) e sul suo antagonista Cales noacki How. (Hym. Aphelinidae) in Toscana. Redia, 74 (1),11–126.

Doumandji, S., Doumandji-Mitiche, B. (1986). Introduction de Cales noaki (Hym., Aphelinidae) en Mitidja pour lutter contre Aleurothricxus floccosus (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Annales de l’institut national agronomique ElHarrach, 10 (2), 44 – 46.

Doumandji-Mitiche, B. & Doumandji, S.E. (1988). Note sur l’instalation en Metidja de Cales noacki HOW. (Hym. Aphelinidae) ennemi naturel de l’aleurode floconneux Aleurothrixus floccosus MASK (Hom. Aleurodidae)., INA, 12, 66-88.

Ekbom, B.S., Rumei, X. (1990). Sampling and spatial patterns of whiteflies. In: Whiteflies: their Bionomics, Pest Status and Management. (D. Gerling, ed.). Intercept Ltd, Andover, 107-121.

France, A., Gerding, M., Tello, V., Peralta, O., Sepúlveda, M. (2011). Investigation about Adaptability of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Pica. INIA Quilamapu, Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique.

Gebreslasie, A., & Meresa, H. (2018). Identification of insect and disease associated to citrus in Northern Ethiopia. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 12(13), 312-320. doi:10.5897/AJMR2017.8780

Giliomee, J.H., Millar, I.M. (2009). The woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a potentially serious citrus pest, recorded from South Africa. African Entomology, 17(2), 232-233. doi:10.4001/003.017.0216

Goulet, H., & Huber J.T, (1993). Hymenoptera of the world: An identification guide to families. Ottawa, Ontario, Centre for Land and Biological Resources Research.

Grout, T.G., Kirkman, W., Moore, S.D. (2012). Woolly whitefly, Aleurothrixus floccosus, on citrus in South Africa. Citrus Research International, South Africa. Fruit Journal, 79-81.

Hussain, M. A., Ahmad, T., Tekeste, M., Teklemariam, N., Abraham, N., & Mehari, N. (2017). A case study of insect pest complex of citrus and their management at Keren, Eritrea, and a note on their natural enemies. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5(3), 1226-1230.

Katsoyannos, P., Ifantis, K., Kontodimas, D.C. (1997). Phenology, population trend and natural enemies of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hom.: Aleyrodidae) at a newly invadedarea in Athens, Greece. Entomophaga, 42, 619–628. doi:10.1007/BF02769820

Katsoyannos, P., Kontodimas, D.C., Stathas, G.J. (1998). The inundative release of Cales noacki Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), for curative treatment of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on heavily infested citrus in Greece. Annals of the Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 18, 111–122.

Kissayi, K., Benhalima, S., & Smaili, M. C. (2017). New records of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Morocco and comparison with North Africa region fauna. Journal of Entomology and Nematology, 9(7), 55-62.

Mahmoudi, A., Allal Benfekih, L., Rouabhi, A. (2017). Approche fonctionnelle de la diversité des communautés d’insectes auxiliaires dans un verger de clémentinierà Chlef. Revue Agrobiologia, 7(2), 445-458.

Meagher, R, (2008). Citrus Pests and their Management. In Encyclopedia of Entomology, (pp. 878-903). Netherlands, Springer.

Nega, A. (2011). Integrated management of woolly whitefly [Aleurothrixus floccusus (maskell) homoptera: aleyrodidae] on citrus at adama, east shewa zone, ethiopia. Thesis Haramaya University.

Onillon, J.C. (1973). Contribution à l’étude de la dynamique des populations d’homoptères inféodés aux agrumes.V.2. Possibilités de régulation des populations d’Aleurothrixus floccosus Mask. (Homoptera, Aleurodidae) sur agrumes par Cales noacki HOW(Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae). Bulletin OEPP/EPPO , 3 (1), 17-26.

Oviasogie, F.E., Ogofure, A.G., Beshiru, A., Ode, J.N., Omeje, F.I. (2015). Assessment of fungal pathogens associated with orange spoilage. African journal of Microbiology Research, 9 (29), 1758-1763. doi:10.5897/AJMR2014.7246

Prema, M.S., Ganapathy, N., Renukadevi, P., Mohankumar, S., Kennedy, J.S. (2018). Coloured sticky traps to monitor thrips population in cotton. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6(2), 948-952.

Ripa, R., Rodríguez, F., Rojas, S., Larral, P., Castro, L., Ortúzar, J., Carmona, P., Vargas, R. (1999). Citrus Pests, their Natural Enemies and Management. INIA Books Collection.

Telli, Ö., Yiğit A. (2012). Hatay ili turunçgillerinde zararlı Turunçgil pamuklu beyazsineği, Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) ve Turunçgil ipek beyazsineği, Paraleyrodes minei Iaccarino (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) 'nin doğal düşmanları. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 36 (1), 147-154.

Tello Mercado, V., Fernández, E.S., Giliomee, J.H. (2014). Life table parameters of the woolly whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid Cales noacki (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). European Journal of Entomology, 111 (2), 251–256. doi:10.14411/eje.2014.020

Toorani, A H., Abbasipour, H. (2017). Effect of geographical directions, height and the color of yellow traps in capture of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) in citrus orchards. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 109 (3), 561–575. doi:10.14720/aas.2017.109.3.08

Townsend, G.K. & Heuberger, J.W., (1943). Methods for estimating losses caused by diseases in fungicide experiments. Plant Disease Reporter, 27 (17), 340-343.

Ulusoy, M.R., Vatansever, G., Erkılıc, L., Uygun, N. (2003). Studies on Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoid, Cales noacki Howard (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) in the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Journal of Pest Science, 76,163–169. doi:10.1007/s10340-003-0014-5

Uygun N., Satar S. (2008). The Current Situation of Citrus Pest and Their Control Methods in Turkey. Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops, IOBC/wprs Bulletin, 38, 2-9.

Yigit, A., Canhilal, R. (2005). Establishment and dispersal of Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), a predatory beetle of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri Ashm (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 112 (3), 268–275.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Abdelhaq MAHMOUDI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Acta agriculturae Slovenica is an Open Access journal published under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY License.


eISSN 1854-1941