Chromium-induced alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don in vitro cultured shoots and related gene expression patterns particularly for the novel gene GS

Elham KHATAEE, Farah KARIMI, Khadijeh RAZAVI


This study aimed to determine the effects of methyl jasmonate (Mj) combined with chromium (Cr) as elicitor on production of medicinal alkaloids, its antioxidant potential, and its effects on the expression of signaling and biosynthetic enzymes. Combined treatment had positive effects on secondary metabolism and changed genes expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), a transcription factor (TF) known as octadecanoid-responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain 3 (ORCA3) upstream of plant alkaloids biosynthetic pathway. Maximum expression levels of peroxidase1 (PRX1), geissoschizine synthase (GS) (24 h-treatment), MAPK3 and ORCA3 (8 h-treatment), were 6.25−, 4.87-, 7.67-, and 5.38-fold higher than control, respectively, in response to 100 µM Mj + 50 µM Cr. This value was 5.92-fold for strictosidine synthase (STR) in response to 100 µM Mj + 100 µM Cr after 24 h. The maximum total yield of vincristine was 1.52-fold more than control in response to 100 µM Mj after one week. This increase was 2.16, 4.01, 2.39 and 1.97-fold for ajmalicine, vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine respectively, in response to 100 µM Mj + 50 µM Cr. Mj + Cr can elevate alkaloid production by induction of MAPK3 and ORCA3 signaling pathway, which induces expression of downstream terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthetic enzymes.


antioxidative responses; chromium; GS; MAPK3; ORCA3; real time PCR

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